Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science (ISSN: 2096-3246) is a bi-monthly peer-reviewed international Journal. Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science was originally formed in 1969 and the journal came under scopus by 2017 to now. The journal is published by editorial department of Journal of Sichuan University. We publish every scope of engineering, Mathematics, physics.
Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science (ISSN: 20963246) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers all sort of engineering topic as well as mathematics and physics. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:
Higher education, and especially university education, is seen as a crucial driver of modernization and growth in emerging nations. Due to this, there is now a higher demand for access to it, but there are also other difficulties. This essay seeks to define the components of higher education quality. The study's comparative evaluations of quality dimensions are based on qualitative and quantitative factors within the higher education industry..
Gamification is applying game design elements in non-gaming context to entertain and to engage the users as well. Therefore, understanding the game design mechanism is vital due increasing use of it in every sphere of life. In this study, researcher describes the development and validation of Gamification Measurement Scale (GMS) based on four factor structure. Two different studies were conducted for construction and validation of gamification measurement scale. First study was conducted with 397 participants from Delhi/NCR region of India. Exploratory Factor analysis technique was conducted for extraction of factors by using SPSS 26.0. Second study was conducted on 514 respondents from Haryana state of India for validating the measurement scale. The validation of scale has done through Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) technique by using SPSS AMOS 26.0 version. Data is collected from 514 young participants from India to validate the developed scale. Researcher extracted the four vital gaming elements i.e., Points, Leaderboard, Countdown timer & Rewards in online shopping environment. This scale showed good reliability and validity for measuring the gaming elements in online shopping environment..
Supply chain management (SCM) has a significant economic impact on business. It is the process of integrating supply and demand management within and between organizations. SCM links the entire manufacturing process, from raw material sourcing and procurement to efficient production, product delivery methods to distributors and customers, and even systems for returning unwanted or defective products. The purpose of this study was to look at the supply chain management issues that automotive industries in India face. Purposive sampling was used to choose 346 engineers, executives, and managers from 16 automotive and related companies for the study. According to the findings, four contributing elements to supply chain management system challenges in the automotive industry include technical and managerial support, supply chain activities, stock out, and payment mode..
Purpose: This study's main objective is to examine how strategic intelligence affects the pharmaceutical industry in India in terms of their ability to perform financially. Design/Methodology/Approach: Managers working at the middle-level in 15 Indian pharmaceutical industries were considered as the population of this research study. A total of 200 middle-level managers were approached, and they were all sent a questionnaire. A total of 148 responses were obtained after three follow-ups, for a response rate of 74 percent. To evaluate the connection between strategic intelligence and business performance, the author used Karl Pearson's correlation. The amount of variance in business performance that can be explained by strategic intelligence was calculated using simple regression. Findings: The business performance of the Indian pharmaceutical businesses is benefited by strategic intelligence. Research limitations/ Implications: Only middle-level managers were polled, and senior-level executives from a few Indian pharmaceutical companies were excluded. A double source approach may be used in future studies. Furthermore, the author's ability to generalize his findings is limited by his attention on only 15 Indian pharmaceutical industries. Practical implications: The author suggests that a data centre or repository be established to centrally store useful data/information that can be used by senior managers to make strategic decisions. Originality/value: This paper fills a void in the strategic management literature in the pharmaceutical industry, where empirical researches on the impact of strategic intelligence on business performance have been scarce..
Behavioural dispositions is a buzzword in the field of behavioural finance. It explains how psychological errors and sentiments of individual investors influence the process of decision- making. According to traditional finance, investors are always rational and they discount every information available in the market. But the same is not true with behavioural finance where investors make irrational decisions because of the several biases prevail. The paper finds out any association between demographic variables and behavioural dispositions of investors. Whether behavioural biases vary according to different demographic factors. A sample of 600 respondents was taken from the city of Gurugram with convenience sampling. Data was analyzed using Anova F-test analyzing the relationship between behavioural dispositions and demographic variables. It is found that herding bias varies according to gender. Anchoring and Representativeness bias varies according to age and investors with a higher level of income depict mental accounting and anchoring bias..
The New Education Policy, 2020 came into existence to revamp the age old education system of India into a new innovative and multidisciplinary system. It was approved by Indian cabinet in July, 2020. This research is exploratory in nature and data is collected through various secondary resources. The paper highlights the features of National Education Policy 2020, major thrust areas, innovative approaches introduced in NEP, its drawback, challenges etc. Further it has been concluded that NEP 2020 though provides a transformational agenda to give India a new paradigm of education but its success will entirely depend on its implementation. If implemented in the proper manner this policy has the ability to make India a global hub of education by 2030..
The competition is increasing every moment for the organizations and hence organizations are putting their best possible efforts to compete. This paper is designed with the objective to explore various HR practices that can contribute in achieving the TQM in Business. The basis for the study is taken from the aspects of competition that are cost reduction, differentiation and innovation. The extensive literature review from Scopus, J-gate, Ebsco and Springer databases are studied to integrate various aspects of TQM and HR practices that inculcate the competitive advantage for organizations. The framework may be developed for the reference to introduce and implement HR practices and manage TQM in the organization. The study may also help the professionals in designing the relevant HR practices for more value to the organizations. The linkage between various factors of the study may be helpful for the academicians and corporate..
This research hopes to provide insights on the influence of external factors that trigger Impulse Buying Behaviour (IBB) in the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) products. This research includes external factors like Visual Merchandising, Packaging and Store Atmosphere that have been taken into consideration and their impact on Urge to Buy Impulsively (UBI) and IBB has hence been studied. Further, data was collected from 489 respondents who paid visits to malls and other type of stores; analysis was conducted through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Study considered 11 hypotheses and out of them 4 did not found support and significance. Results from the study shows that all variables had positive and significant relationship with IBB. In regard to UBI and IBB relationship, study found strong support. Relation of UBI with situational in-store factors shows that UBI have strong and significant relationship with visual merchandising and packaging except store atmosphere. Gender is not found to have an impact upon UBI and IBB, while age is found to be negatively related with IBB and non-related with UBI. With growing organized retail in world markets, study holds significant value and insights for marketers, retailers and theorists to understand impulsive behaviour of customer inside store..
Purpose: For corporations in order to deal with poor financial conditions and increased economic insecurity, efficient WC management has become essential. This study examines the effect on the profitability of the WC(WC) of corporations. The study also investigates the impact of companies' cash levels on the WC and profitability relationship. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study is based on analytical model to estimate the impact relationship of cash levels and profitability on WC utilizing the financial information from S&P BSE 500 companies. Using the OLS model & GMM, the mathematical model proposed in the paper was examined. Findings: This research contributes to a deeper understanding of the interactions between components of WC and shows the non-linear connection involving the link between WC and profitability of companies. Research Limitations: The findings are subject to competitive market variations. Also, the limits of the basic statistical approach used to validate the model..
Businesses environment in contemporary times is complex and uncertain. The unpredictable changes, the disruptive consequences and discontinuity events are likely to impact a company. The events like Covid -19 have motivated companies to imbibe sustainability in their functioning. The companies have acknowledged the significance of development of sustainable dynamic capabilities which enable them to renew and modify their competencies as per the requirement of environment changes and to have a sustainable competitive lead. This study is an attempt to develop a scale for measurement of Sustainable Dynamic Capabilities of the firm. The study further examines empirically the impact of Sustainable dynamic capabilities on the firms profit performance. The profit performance is measured on three dimensions- financial performance; operational performance and market performance. The empirical investigation was conducted through a questionnaire survey of 139 manufacturing companies. The results have indicated that sustainable dynamic capabilities have a positive influence on firm’s economic performance. The study contributes academically to the body of knowledge of Sustainable Dynamic Capability building and also provides a blue print to practicing managers to measure the level of sustainable dynamic capabilities developed in their company..
This paper reviews the comparative analysis of medical image segmentation techniques for segmenting tumor from MRI images to clearly determine brain tumours and help the physician make a better diagnosis. Brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer death in children under the age of 20.The brain tumor segmentation is a challenging and complex task. In recent years segmentation problems have been attracted interest and ongoing research. In this paper comparative study of hybrid segmentation techniques like K-means, PSO-K means,Firefly-K means ,Seg-UNet architecture were carried out and found that hybrid Seg-UNet can provide better output of original image and visual observation of tumors. This hybrid method achieves 99.2% segmentation accuracy with sensitivity 96% and specificity 94%. The results showed that hybrid methods provide a significant contribution to help the physicians in Magnetic resonance brain image tumor detection..
Present study is on challenges faced by the construction industries in proposal stage and the techniques used to overcome the difficulties faced in planning and construction stages. Financial success of a project depends on the optimal usage of owner’s fund. Many methods are proposed by the researchers for prediction of problems in estimating contingency. An attempt is being made to propose the optimal contingency for estimate prepared on construction project so that the estimated cost will be reliable as compared to other techniques used in field. This will result in obtaining better outputs in estimation and costing. The factors affecting the construction project at the proposal stage are analysed and higher weightage is given to variable which has higher influence on the project cost. This prediction technique will act as a gateway for the construction companies to acquire the project since the accuracy of estimation is improved..
In present day construction concrete is overpriced and popular material used where cement is the main source. The world is producing billion tons of concrete in a year. While undergoing cement production process, CO2 is evolved which is the core cause of Global warming. Current Researchers have did enormous job and created many bountiful ways to alter cement. For composing geopolymer concrete by products of various industries may be used like Fly ash, rice husk. In this inquiry geopolymer concrete is prepared with GGBS. GGBS is a byproduct of steel production industry. In this research geopolymer concrete is prepared with GGBS (Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag) and merits and demerits of GGBS are also discussed. Alkaline activator 8M, 10M, 2M & 16M are taken here. The proportion of Activator used is 1:2.5. The cubes prepared for the research was cured in room temperature. Curing is done with ordinary domestic water. Workability of the geopolymer green concrete was not within the good limit. So, plasticizer is added which enhances the workability. Specimen is tested for compressive strength, flexure strength & split tensile strength. All the tests are performed at the standard period based on literature study and guided for concrete other than GPC. Unit weight of GPC was taken as 2400 KG/M3. There are certain constraints to fully replace GPC with the cement. Engineers are trying to establish complete replacement to protect the environment as it makes a eco-friendly concrete. GGBS is a good replacement of cement and production of CO2 is reduced considerably. Our study tries to achieve the strength a of m45 grade OP..
This paper investigates the effectiveness of using seismic isolation gadgetsat the average 3-d seismic reaction of curved motorway viaducts with an emphasis on enlargement joints. Furthermore, an assessment of the effectiveness of using cable restrainers is supplied. For this purpose, the bridge seismic overall performance has been evaluated on 4 distinct radii of curvature, thinking about instances: confined and unrestrained curved viaducts. Depending at the radius of curvature,3-dimensional non-lineardynamicevaluation indicatesthe vulnerability of curved viaducts to pounding and deck unseating harm. In this look at, the performance of the use of LRB helps blended with cable restrainers on curved viaducts is validated, now no longer handiest through decreasing in all instances the feasible harm, however additionally through offering a comparable conduct in the viaducts regardless of curvature radius..
Prefabrication through off-web website online production leads to a decreased basic production schedule, progressed quality, and decreased resource wastage. Modular constructing is consequently an increasing number of famous and promoted. With the latest advertising a wide variety of applicable research were finished, however, a assessment of the layout, production, and overall performance of modular homes beneath specific loading situations is lacking. This paper provides a contemporary assessment of modular constructing systems. First ,structural bureaucracy and production substances are supplied as a quick creation to the modular systems. Modular constructing is proven to refer now no longer to a unmarried shape kind, however quite a few structural structures and substances. These modular systems may carry out in a different way to comparable conventional systems and the structural overall performance is highly dependent on inter- and intra -module connections . The structural reaction of modules to specific dangers is then taken into consideration, accompanied through the contemporary layout exercise and methodology. As a presently growing place there may be terrific cap potential for innovation in modular systems and numerous key studies regions are diagnosed for in addition paintings..
Food preservation is an important criterion in maintaining the quality of a food product over a period of time by increasing its shelf life. This can be achieved by the addition of certain additives (either natural or chemical). Modern trends in food science contributed to the growth of widely researched additives like ascorbic acid, tocopherols and vinegar among others. These preservatives act by suppressing the growth of microorganisms and preventing the production of chemicals that might cause food spoilage. Preservatives also work by scavenging the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) that are produced due to prolonged storage and increased microbial growth. With emerging trends, a new range of chemical preservatives came to the front like nitrates, sorbates, benzoates and sulfites. Even though these are effective as preservatives, they also pose serious health threats to human on ingestion. For example: Sodium nitrite which is prevalent in the preservation of meats and hot dogs’ results in the formation of N-nitrosamines when cooked at high temperature. N-nitrosamine is a known carcinogenic and it will also impede the supply of oxygen to cells in general (Sangeeta Dwivedi et al). As the health effects of some chemical preservatives exceeds its benefits there is quite a search for the natural preservatives both by researchers and industrialists in general. This shift is paradigm is strengthened by the shift in consumer preference for organic products. In this paper the use of different varieties of aloe vera extract as a viable option for natural preservative is investigated..
AI attendance register,aim of the project is to make the attendance process in organization effortless.This system can be more efficient than bio metric attendance and other manual attendance system .We processed this system using python language with face recognition open cv libraries with Haar cascade algorithm.It can automatically detect the face with uploaded photo and mark the attendance with name and time in excel.
The powder sample of CsCl and CsI used in this work was sieved using a mesh. The mesh was a nylon cloth and the powder X – ray data were collected by X – ray diffractometer. The X – ray intensity data was collected using X- ray monochromatic beam of wavelength 1.54046 Å..
The powder sample of CsCl and CsI used in this work was sieved using a mesh. The mesh was a nylon cloth and the powder X – ray data were collected by X – ray diffractometer. The X – ray intensity data was collected using X- ray monochromatic beam of wavelength 1.54046 Å..
Celosia argenteavar.cristata is an ornamental plant, the colored vegetative tissues of plants in the family Amaranthaceae contain various inflorescences colour varieties. Inflorescence colour varied from yellow to various shades of red and violet. It was being stated true that red inflorescences of common cockscomb contain a nitrogen containing pigment. It was found that betalain were found in red inflorescences. Therefore celosia argenteavar.cristata was used as a potential alternative to the betalains from beet root. In the present study, attempts were carried out to extract betalainfrom celosiaargenteavar.cristataand attempts were also made to study the stability of the extracted betalains under factors such as changes in pH, temperature and presence of antioxidants. The activation energy and rate constants for the degradation kinetics where the dertermined. The studies were also carried out to stabilize the extracted betalin by dehydrating them using malto dextrin and gum acacia as filler and coating agent respectively..
Glass Fiber composites are considered to have potential use as a reinforcing material in epoxy polymer based composites because of their good strength, stiffness etc., in present study, mechanical properties for glass fiber composites were evaluated. Here, Glass fiber is the fiber reinforcement and epoxy polymer resin as a matrix material. Composites were prepared with longitudinal (Unidirectional) and cross (Bidirectional) glass fiber reinforced with epoxy based polymer. Mechanical test i.e. compression and tensile test were performed on UTM and the results are reported. The result showed compressive and tensile strength of unidirectional and bidirectional glass fiber reinforced epoxy polymer composites and presented the conclusion.
The present study is to analyze the effect of nano additives of Zinc oxide particles on engine performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha Methyl Ester (J20) as a fuel. The zinc oxide particles such as 50ppm & 100ppm were added to various blends of J20. Results show that addition of zinc oxide additive improves the brake thermal efficiency and is effective in control of hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), smoke and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) at full load conditions..
Emission control is one of the biggest challenges in today’s automotive industry. Emission control can be achieved either by controlling combustion or by treating the exhaust gas. The latter is comparatively easier since there is less or no need to modify the engine itself. One such after treatment method is the use of catalytic converter. But, the 3-way converter is expensive due to use of both platinum and palladium/rhodium. One of the alternative is the use of selective catalytic reduction, i.e., reduction of a particular mission based on the type of the engine used. For example, the major emissions in case of CI engines are NOX and PM. This project aims at reduction of NOX using SCR and its optimization.This project presents a modelling approach to the design optimization of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. The present study is concerned with ammonia slip and conversion efficiency of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), which are two major issues of SCR technologies. The physical processes including urea spray atomization, droplet evaporation, urea decomposition and turbulent mixing are accounted for in the modelling method. In addition, the velocity distribution and pressure drop in the SCR converter are analyzed with the consideration of flow resistances of the catalyst substrates and perforated plates..
The aim of the present study is to analyze the effect of antioxidant (L-ascorbic acid)) on engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of Rapeseed oil. The antioxidant is mixed in various concentrations (100-400mg) with methyl ester of Rapeseed oil. Result shows that antioxidant additive mixture (MERSO+LA300) is effective in control of NOX and HC emission of methyl ester of Rapeseed oil fuelled engine without doing any engine modification..
Most countries of the world faces crises of energy demand, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuels forces the researcher to find the alternate fuel for diesel engines. A lot of research work point out that biodiesel and its blends with diesel is employed as alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications in the existing diesel engine. Very few works have been done with the combination off two different biodiesel blends with the neat diesel fuel and leads to lot of scope in this area. This paper presents experimental results on dual fuel operation of a single cylinder a single-cylinder diesel enginewithdiesel, karanja oil and mixture of karanja oil and diethyl ether (DEE) as primary fuels. Results on brake thermal efficiency, fuel consumptions and emissions, namely, un-burnt hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and NOx are presented here.The paper also includes vital information regarding performances of the engine at a wide range of load conditions with different blended fuel substitutions..
High Performance Concrete is a concrete mixture, which possess high durability and high strength when compared to conventional concrete. This concrete contains one or more of cementitious materials such as fly ash, silica fume or ground granulated blast furnace slag and usually a super plasticizer. The term ‘High Performance’ is somewhat pretentious because the essential feature of this concrete is that its ingredients and proportions are specifically chosen so as to have particularly appropriate properties for the expected use of the structure such as high strength and low permeability. Hence High Performance Concrete is not a special type of concrete. It comprises of the same materials as that of the conventional cement concrete. The use of some mineral and chemical admixtures like Silica fume, Fly ash and Super plasticizer enhance the strength, durability and workability qualities to a very high extent. Hence with a view of these aspects this paper deals with the analysis of high performance short columns by adding admixtures and superplasticizers..
The main source of freshwater is considered as Groundwater on the earth and it also contains various ions in it in different concentrations. The ions which is present in water are adaptable for human health upto certain limit and when the concentration of these ions are beyond the permissible limits it will cause serious problems and health issues for humans as well as it is not suitable for domestic purpose also. The main among these ions which causes various dental and skeletal disorders is Fluoride. Using of water which has high concentration of Fluoride may prove to be toxic to humans, animals as well as plants. Excessive concentration of fluoride in the ground water source has been reported in more than 25 countries and India is also one among them in which 4 states are more prone to high fluoride concentration. In view of this an attempts were made to findout the fluoride content in groundwater of West Zone of Coimbatore Corporation. The over permissible limit (0.8-1.5mg/l) of fluoride concentration in drinking water results in various health hazards to humans such as dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis affecting millions of people. Therefore, a proper systematic assessment and treatment of groundwater is required for the reduction of toxic level of fluoride..
The objective of this project is to safe guard the lives of fisherman by using the technology GPS (Global Positioning System) and WSN (Wireless Sensor Network).GPS is used to track the current location of the boat. If the fisherman cross the border, the alarm sound will get generated. The relay circuit will reverse the boat. The WSN technology is to transfer the information between fisherman and IOT (Internet of Things) station..
The diathermy is used to cutting skin tissue by using an AC current. Electrocautery is a device that is part of electrosurgical diathermy. It is the universally used dissection and during a surgical procedure of stopping the flow of blood, make use of radiofrequency alternating current is used for heating and thermally evaporating tissue in terms of surgical dissections. By using the high-frequency alternate opposition radio wave electrical current to cut coagulation, dissection during surgery a surgical smoke may produce so they’re by surgical smoke has been successfully put to use in tissue identification in the laboratory a new system will be implemented by using a system based on (DMS) differential mobility spectrometry. They also provide an ideal margin evaluation method along with that the doctors are so suffered and inconvenient during a surgery. So, to avoid this problem a LED light is placed in the Electrocautery to provide a light facility at the time of doing an operation deep inside the tissues. With this solution, there are no drawbacks, by no burn marks in the tissue (or) human body normally. Thereby the light in the electrocautery helps a doctor to get an easy way in operation using a clear identification by DMS method during surgery..
In micro-electro discharge machining (micro-EDM), electrodes plays important role during machining operation. The tool electrode should possess the desirable properties like easy machinability, low wear rate, good conductor of electricity and heat, cheap and readily available. Present paper deals with comparative investigation of machining characteristics such as MRR, TWR, OC, MT and Taper during microhole drilling in micro EDM on AISI 304 stainless steel material using copper and brass electrodes using de-ionized water as dielectric. Furthermore, surface characteristics and entry and exit diameter of machined microholes have also been investigated through SEM micrographs. Results from a thermal finite element analysis are also presented to show how the thermal action of the micro-EDM process affected the surface integrity of machined workpiece. The results of the thermal finite element analysis show high temperature gradient zones in a machined workpiece. Thermal is performed in this study using the commercial FEM package ANSYS 11.0..
In the present study, the effect of stacking sequence on mechanical, physical, and biodegradability properties of treated coconut leaf sheath fabric with vinyl ester resin hybrid composites were studied. The hybrid composite laminates were fabricated by using hand lay-up technique. The specimen preparation and testing were conducted as per ASTM standards. Obtained results indicated that the incorporation of coconut leaf sheath with the same coconut leaf sheath of hybrid composites has greater effect on tensile and hardness properties. Coconut leaf sheath fibers treated with NaOH solution shows significant improvement for adhesion between fiber and matrix. Water absorption plots for different periods of immersion indicated that coconut leaf sheath with hybrid composites offer better resistance to water absorption than pure natural fiber reinforced composites. Thickness swelling of the hybrid composites increases due to increase in the percentage of water absorption of the composites. From SEM analysis of the tensile fractured surface of hybrid composites, it is found that the failure of composite is due to poor interfacial bonding between fiber and matrix. An overall comparison of all the laminates revealed that the hybrid laminates of coconut leaf sheath with extreme fibers plies as skin layer is the optimum combination with a good balance between the properties. So they may be suited in manufacturing of doors, roofs, windows and other oriented materials..
The pavement of new way for the application of Hall Effect sensor to enter into weight measurements. This can be achieved by the usage of Helical Compression Spring which carries the load carrying board. Neodymium magnet is attached to the lower part of the load carrying board. When the load is applied on the load carrying board, the helical compression spring deflects. So, due to deflection of the spring, magnet attached to the load carrying board moves towards the Hall Effect sensor which remains static at the lower part of the setup. So, due to hall effect phenomena, hall voltage will be generated proportional to load applied. Finally, the load applied will be predicted. The output (load applied) can be seen in Mobile or laptop or LCD display..
Numerous natural and anthropogenic activities that release hazardous chemicals into the environment have the potential to harm both plants and people.The gradual alteration in the composition of the atmosphere over the past century is caused by increased fossil fuel combustion and industrialization. Heavy metals, respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 & PM10), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and other air pollutants all have different chemical compositions, reaction characteristics, emission times, and propensities to diffuse over long or short distances thus effect environment in different proportion. Air pollution also have have adverse effect on the health of living beings. Pollution has disastrous effects on the plants, animals and Human beings. Air pollution damage to plants has been analyzed since 125 years. Injuries to plants can be confused with disease symptoms from fungi, nematodes, termites, bacteria, nutritional deficiencies and toxicities, genetic disorders, temperature, water and salinity. The chapter focused on measuring and monitoring APTI and API in roadside and urban plants. These tools analyse plant pollution tolerance towards air pollution. The plant species which shows higher tolerance towardsair pollution, can be employed as a pollutant sink to control air pollution. High APTI and API plants are used to promote green belts and manage air pollution in cities and developed areas. Many plant species are tolerant of air pollution, making them excellent for industrial areas and roadsides..
It is unlikely to find research explicitly contesting the relationship between signature and personality characteristics in relevant literature. The overarching goal of current research is to bolster the conclusions that clearly demonstrate the association between signature and personality characteristics. The available research hasn't yet been able to provide convincing evidence to support the claim that personality qualities may be read into a signature, though. As a result, this area of study continues to be researched. The goal of this paper is to add scientific value to the current research and explore if personality test results and the fractal dimensions of signatures are related. The directors whose everyday business procedures include the signature the most were the subjects of the study. There is no association, according to the research..
Attainment of food security and zero-hunger goal are the major targets in front of global agricultural planners and these can be achieved only by improvement in the agronomic practices. Integrating the use of organic and inorganic fertilizers as well as green manure and bio-fertilizers is the best strategy to boost crop productivity. Combine the usage of organic manures with the right amounts of NPK fertilizer can help in stabilizing the crop nutrients and maintaining the soil health. This will also reduce the reliance on inorganic chemical fertilizers and build an economical and sustainable crop productivity. Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) is one of the sound agricultural practices that should be adopted by farmer to preserve soil health and to increase the sustainability of agriculture and the environment..
In many nations where rivers and drainage systems are insufficient, groundwater has replaced them as the primary source of water used in agriculture. As a result, in recent years, low groundwater quality for irrigation purposes has raised concerns. Groundwater pollution is a result of inadequate or excessive use of chemical fertilizers .The quality of groundwater is influenced by the type of recharging water, precipitation, subsurface and surface water, hydro-geochemical processes in aquifers, changes in land use and land cover, and mining activities. Periodic changes in groundwater quality are usually caused by temporal changes in the makeup and source of the water recharged, as well as by human activity. Groundwater quality deteriorates in two ways: first, as a result of geochemical reactions in the soils and aquifers, and second, when it is provided for irrigation through inefficient canals or drainages. Therefore, it is essential to regularly evaluate the quality of drinking and irrigation water. A sufficient amount of usable water must be available for irrigation. Irrigation demands sufficient water supply of usable quality. It may be helpful to use an index based on the composition and concentration of dissolved components in water to assess whether it is suitable for agricultural use. The type of mineral components present in the water and how they affect the soil and plants determine whether or not groundwater is suitable for irrigation. This paper reviewed groundwater hydro chemistry of the Indo Gangetic Plain region in relation with irrigation and overexploitation of groundwater. Also considering the changes in the physico-chemistry of the aquifers of the region, with respect to monsoon. It was observed that in most of the IGP regions water quality becomes unfit for irrigation purpose during post-monsoon due to leaching of pollutants. High concentration of various salts and heavy metals in the groundwater was also found due to the high siltation, erosion and leaching activities..
A brief discussion of luminescent and mechanoluminescent materials has been provided in the current chapter. It includes study of different synthetic methodologies reported in the literature for luminescent and mechanoluminescent inorganic and organic materials. It also relates the effect of doping, vacancy concentration and crystal structure on luminescent phenomenon of materials..
Forensic science is the science combining the pure sciences, scientific knowledge, methodologies and their applications in the court of law for the regulation of administration of law and justice. It has emerged as the principle and substantial field for the governance of the criminal and civil cases. Thus, the science involved in the forensic investigation of various kinds of exhibits can be applied in the food safety procedures, food poisoning, adulteration etc giving a new and distinct domain of forensic science, which can be called as ‘Food Forensics’. Various platforms call it as food safety science, and food science. Food adulteration has serious adverse effects on living beings’ health. There are laws and penalties levied on production and selling of adulterated food items despite which the malpractice is common. There is substantial number of reported cases of food industries involving various chemical and synthetic substances deployed for contaminating food. The chronic consumption of adulterants may prove lethal and therefore the necessity for its timely detection and cure. In this chapter, various adulterants being commonly used in food products are being focused and discussed involving corresponding sophisticated detection techniques..
Wetlands are interlinkage between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems where there is typically shallow water on the land or the water table is at or near the surface. Wetlands aid in flood management, waste water treatment, bird habitat, and they also provide revenue through food production and fishing for local residents. Wetlands are well known for maintaining a healthy balance between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, but due to industrialization and urbanisation, which is causing their overall area to shrink day by day, they are now in danger of being extinct. Basai wetland, one of the important ecosystems located in Gurugram, Haryana is facing severe thereat of shrinkage and extinction due to encroachment of metropolis city and rapid population growth. With the help of secondary data, this research paper analysed the challenges and conservation strategies of Basai wetland and compared the same with another nearby wetland located in Sultanpur which has already been declared as National Park and received international importance last year. The report emphasised the severity of harm done to Basai wetlands as a result of Government and public indifference..
This paper is about the, Sustainable waste management serves as a significant approach and is a promising solution to our current waste problems. Sustainable waste management has now caught a global attention, it would also encourage the society to take up zero waste lifestyles, i.e. reduction in consumption and waste generation at source level. Since waste is a sign of inefficiency, the reduction of waste can minimize the cost through 3’R concept. This project explains the design of, Composting pit for the treatment of organic waste, Energy recovery from food waste using biogas plant and Sewage treatment plant for the sewage are some of the waste management approaches that are to be implemented in the selected project area. The proposed 70 kilo liter per day plant is designed to treat the sewage water generated from the gated community and reuse the treated sewage for gardening purposes. Any material waste would either return as reusable or recycled materials or would be suitable for use as compost. Amount of waste generated and amount of waste converted to energy /manure is been discussed below..
This project examines the Phoenix Sp. fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites mechanical properties are influenced by the matrix material (PLA). Using an injection moulding technique, the composite was manufactured by altering the fibre length (300 µm, 10, 20, and 30 mm) and fibre volume fraction (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) with random fibre orientations. The ASTM Standards were followed when testing the composite samples under the usual experimental settings. The outcomes showed that the mechanical properties are significantly influenced by the matrix material. Comparatively with PLA matrix-treated fibre showed better mechanical properties than untreated fibre.
Identifying the Human using emotional status is the key parameter in image recognition as speech and facial expressions are the human cognitive-communication factors. The recent trends in Human computer Interaction demands the computer processing capability and recognition of facial and speech parameters. In this project, Human Speech and Facial based emotion recognition technique using a KNN has been proposed for improving the performance of detection with multi-emotions effectively. The obtained results of the proposed technique show that the average rate of recognition is higher than other recently existing techniques.
The work introduces a new hybrid image enhancement approach driven by dominant brightness level analysis. This approach, based on the adaptive intensity transfer function and discrete wavelet transformation, can enhance simultaneously the overall contrast and the sharpness of an image. The approach also increases the visibility of specified portions or aspects of the image whilst better maintaining image gray color values. The proposed method can effectively enhance any low-contrast images acquired by a satellite camera and are also suitable for other various imaging devices. The multispectral edges were first obtained from the edge-preserved smoothed image and the initial seeds were automatically generated through the local variation characteristics of the multispectral edge. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm enhances the overall contrast and visibility of local details better than existing techniques.
Recent advances in wearable devices has improved the health monitoring system of COVID 19 patients. The severity of virus during pandemic has affected the health care sector drastically. Monitoring of patients is supported by IoT interfaced wearable devices. The proposed work is focused on remote monitoring of patient health care parameters, interfacing with IoT devices and medical image analysis using deep learning. The sensor data and patient information is recorded in cloud server and the health care parameters are analyzed using deep learning approach. For COVID 19 patient the real time data from oximeter, pulse sensor and temperature sensor plays a key parameter for analysis. Deep learning technique is applied to analyze medical images and health care parameters measured from patient data base.
Using the concept of human redundancy, stochastic models are created for a system (an electrical device, such as a computer system). In certain circumstances, the necessity of repair work and preventative hardware maintenance will also be taken into consideration to determine the optimum repair strategy for enhancing system reliability. Arbitrary values of the parameters are used to examine a range of reliability measures, including transition probabilities, mean sojourn time, MTSF, availability, busy period at the service facility, and anticipated number of repairs and treatments to the component. Profit function and Graphical representation of the study should be considered by assuming random values of the parameters associated with the human redundancy.
The COVID-19 pandemic introduced many new challenges globally including the Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM). In pre pandemic era MSWM was facing many obstacles and difficulties nationwide and now this picture became worst in post pandemic era. The data of solid waste generation per day has drastically accelerated and also getting mixed with biomedical waste. Huge numbers of non-point sources of contagious wastes made the Municipal Solid Waste Management more challenging and complex to handle. This study emphasizes the challenges of existing waste management facilities are facing to treat huge waste generation. India was one of the highest COVID positive cases across world which led huge biomedical waste generation. Therefore, the study has focused to enlighten and discuss the problems of waste management in various stages in our country and to share some solutions
Diabetes mellitus claims millions of lives every year. It affects the body in various ways by leading to many serious illnesses and premature mortality. Heart and kidney diseases, which caused by diabetes are increasing at an alarming rate. In this paper, we report a study of a non- invasive measurement technique to determine the glucose levels in the human body. Current existing methods to quantify the glucose level in the blood are predominantly invasive that involve taking the blood samples using finger pricking. In this paper, we report a spectroscopy based non-invasive glucose monitoring system to measure glucose concentration near infrared transmission spectroscopy is used and in vitro experiments are conducted, as well as in vivo. Our experimental study confirms a correlation between the sensor output voltage and glucose concentration levels. We report a low cost proto type of spectroscopy based non- invasive glucose monitoring system that demonstrates promising results in vitro and establishes a relationship between the optical signals and the changing levels of blood glucose concentration.
Forging is the process of making and shaping metals by use of hammering or pressing. Forging is one of the main processes in metal production. To keep the quality of forged parts high is very important from the viewpoint of performance or safety of the products. Hence forged part quality is checked by visual inspection whether there is any defect, it imposes a lot of loads to the workers. Same way the defect detection is expected to be substituted by laser measurement or image processing instead of human eyes, comparison of both methods has hardly been carried out. In this , experimental results to detect defects by both methods are described for one forged part. Mainly, comparison between frequency analysis by Fourier or wavelet transform and image processing is reported.
A novel 7-coordinated hydrated cobalt(II) ethylenediaminetetraacetate complex with hydrazinium cation, has been synthesized in aqueous medium and its composition has been assigned as (N2H5)2[Co(edta)(H2O)](H2O)2 on the basis of hydrazine, CHN and metal analyses and characterized by conductivity and magnetic measurement, UV-visible and infrared spectral and crystal studies. The thermal degradation studies reveal the presence of two types of water molecules viz., coordinated and lattice water molecules. Hydrazinium cation is present outside the coordination sphere as charge neutralizing species. X-ray single crystal structure reveals that the cobalt(II) ion is seven coordinated and edta4- act as a hexadentate chelating ligand. One water molecule occupies the seventh site resulting in the pentagonal bipyrimidal geometry. Hirshfeld surface analysis and fingerprint plots revealed influence of weak or non bonding interactions in crystal packing of complex. The DNA binding property of the complex with calf-thymus DNA has been investigated using electronic absorption spectrophotometry and the binding constant Kb calculated is in favour of strong interaction between the complex and DNA.
This research hopes to provide insights on the influence of external factors that trigger Impulse Buying Behaviour (IBB) in the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) products. This research includes external factors like Visual Merchandising, Packaging and Store Atmosphere that have been taken into consideration and their impact on Urge to Buy Impulsively (UBI) and IBB has hence been studied. Further, data was collected from 489 respondents who paid visits to malls and other type of stores; analysis was conducted through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Study considered 11 hypotheses and out of them 4 did not found support and significance. Results from the study shows that all variables had positive and significant relationship with IBB. In regard to UBI and IBB relationship, study found strong support. Relation of UBI with situational in-store factors shows that UBI have strong and significant relationship with visual merchandising and packaging except store atmosphere. Gender is not found to have an impact upon UBI and IBB, while age is found to be negatively related with IBB and non-related with UBI. With growing organized retail in world markets, study holds significant value and insights for marketers, retailers and theorists to understand impulsive behaviour of customer inside store.
This research hopes to provide insights on the influence of external factors that trigger Impulse Buying Behaviour (IBB) in the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) products. This research includes external factors like Visual Merchandising, Packaging and Store Atmosphere that have been taken into consideration and their impact on Urge to Buy Impulsively (UBI) and IBB has hence been studied. Further, data was collected from 489 respondents who paid visits to malls and other type of stores; analysis was conducted through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Study considered 11 hypotheses and out of them 4 did not found support and significance. Results from the study shows that all variables had positive and significant relationship with IBB. In regard to UBI and IBB relationship, study found strong support. Relation of UBI with situational in-store factors shows that UBI have strong and significant relationship with visual merchandising and packaging except store atmosphere. Gender is not found to have an impact upon UBI and IBB, while age is found to be negatively related with IBB and non-related with UBI. With growing organized retail in world markets, study holds significant value and insights for marketers, retailers and theorists to understand impulsive behaviour of customer inside store.
Alcohol abuse in India has become a serious concern for the legal system. Given the fact that the production, sale, storage and consumption laws for alcohols are state dependent in India and alcoholic drinks being a major source of their revenue, the states seem to be least concerned about public health. Accurate and precise analytical methods are used for alcohol testing as high concentrations of alcohol in breath or blood (BrAC or BAC) may lead to serious legal consequences. Gas–liquid chromatography by so far is the gold standard for ethanol testing in biological specimens. Biological specimens which require qualitative and quantitative analysis of alcohols are sent to the forensic science laboratories in India. Breath-alcohol analyzers are used as roadside screening tests which act as evidence for prosecution of traffic offenders.
Chemically known as Ethanol, Alcohol is one of the most abused drug with both recreational and psychoactive properties. It is of great forensic importance as the number of cases confronted is very high. The word alcohol is derived from the Arabic word "alkohl" which refers to a fine metallic powder used to stain the face and eyelids in the East. Later, the term was expanded to include any powder obtained through titration and sublimation, as well as a fluid derived through distillation. ROH is the general formula for alcohols with R being any alkyl group and OH being the functional group for alcohols. All alcoholic beverages contain ethanol in varying amounts. There is no national policy for alcohols in India due to which the problems relating to alcoholism are increasing day by day in the country.
To reconstruct the scene of the crime using a human-size dummy in the cases of homicide, Suicide, Accident is very useful to ascertain the sequencing of incidence and to find out the apparent cause of incidence. To perform the dummy experiment will yield a fruitful outcome if there is no eyewitness or any visual of the incident. The authors describe various steps for making the human size dummy and perform the dummy experiment on the spot in the cases of suicide and homicide to describe some actual cases.
Mutual fund industry has experienced a drastic growth within the past twenty years. Increase within the number of schemes with increased mobilization of funds in the past few years provide benefits to the importance of Indian mutual funds industry. To satisfy the expectations of many retail investors, the mutual funds are required to function as successful institutional investors. Proper assessment of varied fund performance and their comparison with other funds helps retail investors for creating investment decisions. This paper examines the performance of mutual fund schemes compares these returns with SBI domestic term deposit rates. While considering the interest of retail investors simple statistical techniques like averages and rate of returns are used. The results obtained from the study clearly depicts that, in most of the cases the mutual fund schemes have failed even to supply the return of SBI domestic term deposits.
The increasing demand for compactness and more wide variety of functional capabilities in each merchandise these days have made manufacturers to try for newer machining techniques. Different styles of micro-machining strategies are used for producing miniature elements and additives. Micro machining refers to material removal from 1 µm to 999µm. Electrochemical machining is able to machining a wide variety of electrically conductive materials which include tough and difficult-to-machine materials. This non-contact micro-fabrication process does no longer set off residual stress or cause device tool wear. When applied to produce micro-operations, it's far referred as electrochemical micro-machining (EMM). In this experiments it has been performed to analyze the impact of voltage on response parameters like material removal rate and shape accuracy of EMM process. Micro-holes were drilled on stainless steel-304 plate and a strip of composite material the usage of stainless-steel electrode of diameter 380µm with insulated walls as tool. The experiments have been conducted varying the voltage while maintaining input parameters like current, pulse on/off time, electrolyte and electrolyte concentration at a steady level. The outcomes have been as compared and studied.
The biopolymer films have a low thermal stability, poor gas barrier properties, low tensile strength, and low elasticity despite being environmentally friendly and biodegradable. A composite film made of clay and agarose biopolymer was developed to boost its heat stability. The film was then given glycerol to improve its flexibility. Solvent casting, clay with a weight percentage of 3 or 5, and clay that had been treated with agarose and amino glycoside medications were all used to create the films. The clay and modified clay agarose films were also characterised using thermal analysis, PXRD, and AFM methods. Two gram-positive (Staphylococcus aurous, Bacillus subtilis) and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were used to test the composite films' efficacy in treating wounds.
The New Education Policy, 2020 came into existence to revamp the age old education system of India into a new innovative and multidisciplinary system. It was approved by Indian cabinet in July, 2020. This research is exploratory in nature and data is collected through various secondary resources. The paper highlights the features of National Education Policy 2020, major thrust areas, innovative approaches introduced in NEP, its drawback, challenges etc. Further it has been concluded that NEP 2020 though provides a transformational agenda to give India a new paradigm of education but its success will entirely depend on its implementation. If implemented in the proper manner this policy has the ability to make India a global hub of education by 2030.
Behavioural dispositions is a buzzword in the field of behavioural finance. It explains how psychological errors and sentiments of individual investors influence the process of decision- making. According to traditional finance, investors are always rational and they discount every information available in the market. But the same is not true with behavioural finance where investors make irrational decisions because of the several biases prevail. The paper finds out any association between demographic variables and behavioural dispositions of investors. Whether behavioural biases vary according to different demographic factors. A sample of 600 respondents was taken from the city of Gurugram with convenience sampling. Data was analyzed using Anova F-test analyzing the relationship between behavioural dispositions and demographic variables. It is found that herding bias varies according to gender. Anchoring and Representativeness bias varies according to age and investors with a higher level of income depict mental accounting and anchoring bias.
In addition to other types of microscopes such as magnifying lenses, compound microscopes, stereo microscopes, and comparison microscopes that are utilised for document examination. Some equipment, such as the Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA), It also employed for document analysis. These tools and technique are only used for intended document analysis. ESDA is a forensic instrument that identifies indented script on paper. An ESDA (electrostatic detecting device) is a powerful technology used to decode depressions or imprints in sheets during disputed paper testing. It is a non-destructive technique. It is a sensitive approach that may detect indentations, impressions, or subsurface patterns created on sheets many levels under the uppermost sheet. It is also sensitive to old handwriting, resulting in indentations. It is a technique for displaying indented text, which may be found during disputed content examination in the event of scribbled notes and abduction letters. In this research focuses on the ESDA technique to developed indented handwriting and also focuses on the study of pen pressure through ESDA technique..
The band gap of vinylene-linked seven membered organic heterocyclic conducting polymers 1 to 4, are calculated by implementing DFT with B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. The effect of chemical modification by introducing heteroatom on the electronic structure of polymers is discussion. The fact that introducing a heteroatom increases conjugation, chemical stability and affects the band gap of the aromatic ring is also discussed. It is concluded that vinylene-linked, azepine based polymer 2 has the lowest band-gap among all the investigated systems and hence has a better conducting properties. Our results highlight the use of computation for designing materials with enhanced photovoltaic applications..
Solid Waste Management in the rural realm is unworthy compared to urban areas. Adherence to solid waste management principles and laws comes from many provocations. From Solid Waste Management Rule 2016 to looming plans, a suitable settlement can develop a program for ongoing achievement. The primary data has been collected by surveying the village. The information on Solid Waste composition offer relative magnitudes of character waste fractions, the chances of which continually sum to a hundred, thus connecting them virtually. Due to this sum constraint, waste composition facts constitute closed statistics. Their interpretation and evaluation require statistical methods aside from classical records, which are appropriate most uncomplicated for non-limited facts, including absolute value. However, the closed traits of waste composition records are frequently disregarded whilst analysed..
The use of scientific principles in relation to law for the benefit of justice is known as forensic science. Every time we use science to address a legal issue, we are engaging in forensic science. When a crime is being investigated, forensic science and forensic experts serve three main purposes i.e., Has a crime been committed? – To establish the Corpus Delicti, How and when was the crime committed? –To establish the Modus Operandi, and Who committed the crime? – To identify the Criminal. Forensic science is everywhere in our life, it may go unnoticed, but, since the beginning of our day till the end of it, we experience it in several ways. For instance: It begins from your driving car (keyless Car Entry), when you park your car/Toll Gates (License Plate Recognition, RFID Cards, Toll Tags, etc.), at login of your attendance in office or school (Biometrics), within your office/market/other places, within in your Mobile Phones as various security features, your ATM card PIN numbers/passwords/login id’s etc. This chapter provides information on the use of forensic science and its practical applications in daily life of an individual..
Juvenile delinquency is considered as a serious crime that harms the social norms of society. The number of juvenile offences is on the rise everywhere, and young people are becoming more and more involved in violent crimes. The trend of such youth related crimes are also rising in India. It is a very significant issue for the country, and solutions must be carefully researched in order to put an end to the issue. In response to these trends, the Indian legal system and court have amended several of the country's statutes governing juvenile justice. This essay tries to examine the reasons behind juvenile delinquency and the theories put up to explain the issue by academics from various disciplines. Analysis of the statistical data found on official websites shows a rise in the involvement of young people in terrible crimes. The Act related to Juvenile Delinquency has been changed to address the issue of juvenile delinquency in India, and minors accused of grave crimes are now tried as adults. In India, the crime rate is rising steadily, and the most startling tendency that can be seen is that it is rising among juveniles as well. They engage in any manner of criminal activity, including theft, murder, smuggling, and sexual offences. The surge in youth violence is a matter of national concern. With little focus on prevention or intervention, punishment has been the main area of concern. The protection, treatment, and rehabilitation of children who have committed crimes as a result of outside pressures are one of the main goals of the Juvenile Justice Act..
Juvenile delinquency is a problem that has always existed in society. It happens in both simple and complex societies. Criminal activity or offences committed by kids, youth, or a juvenile is known as juvenile delinquency. As they would be for adults, these actions do not fall under the category of "crimes." Delinquent acts, on the other hand, are crimes committed by minors or adolescents. The rate of adolescent delinquency has significantly increased in emerging nations like India during the past ten years. It is not just a legal issue; the psychological, sociological and familial aspects of the issue must be considered. The offences may be of different tendencies like status offences and delinquent offences. Children who commit crimes are not only the perpetrators of the crime but also the victims of this broken society. If proper precautions are taken at home and in school, juvenile delinquency can be stopped at an early age. Children's minds need to be nurtured and shaped, and parents and teachers play a big part in that. The required procedures should be done to provide the young offenders with a scope of correction rather than designating them delinquents. It is important to alert them as soon as possible to any social or psychological faults they have made..
Along with the hyper production of sebum, some of the other functions like oxidant/antioxidant ratio of the lipids on the skin's surface, synthesis of local androgen, antimicrobial peptides production and synthesis of sapienic acid which is lipid with antimicrobial play a crucial role in acne pathogenesis. Until the middle of the 20th century, inflammation was considered to be the result of seborrhea, follicular keratosis, and microbes acting individually as the cause. However, by the mid-twentieth century, none of the aforementioned factors could fully explain the processes. but a ‘chain of some other factors’ such as bacterial inversion, keratinization follicular opening, sebum alteration and inflammation were responsible for the formation of the lesions. One of the reason for acne is an abnormal reaction to normal levels instead of excess hormone levels. However, association of acne in syndromes with hyperandrogenism, like PCOS, HAIR-AN and SAHA syndromes further highlight the role of androgens. Presence of insulin resistance with high circulating serum insulin as is seen in PCOS and HAIR-AN syndrome highlight the role of insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1) on the keratinisation. Propionibacterium acnes as a causative bacterium responsible for inflammatory lesions has been further augmented by its demonstration in bone biopsies in SAPHO syndrome. Role of inflammation is highlighted, as is also seen in PAPA syndrome. Two of the recent case controlled studies have highlighted the role of high glycemic diet with the same premise of high circulating serum insulin. PAPA syndrome with autosomal dominant inheritance with mutation of gene on chromosome 15 responsible for CD2 binding protein 1 (CD2BP1) and FGFR2 mutations in Apert syndrome and neavus comedonicus lend further support for the hypothesis that genetics may play a role in androgen receptor transactivation and IGF-1 signalling, both of which are important in acne pathogenesis..
The aim of this article is to analyse the alternate source of production of paper i.e. from the agricultural residues. The quantity of agricultural waste rapidly increases day by day due to high demand of food by increasing population. These agricultural residues are burnt by farmers which creates many environmental problems which are faced by whole world. Therefore, there is a need to overcome on these problems by adopting recycling method. This agricultural waste can be applied as an effective alternative for the production of paper which helps in reducing the pollution as well as deforestation problem. This Review summarizes the study of process of production of paper and also deals with the types and chemical composition of different types of agricultural residues. The whole process of paper manufacturing from agricultural waste is eco-friendly. Basically, this study upgrades the concept of “from waste to wealth’’..
Due to the presence of contaminants in wastewater, the importance of wastewater treatment using inexpensive sorbents is very important. This study describes the production of activated carbon from the bark of the VAGAI TREE (Albizia lebbeck) and the feasibility of adsorption and flocculation in domestic wastewater treatment. Plants are abundant in tropical regions. Activated charcoal is dried and powdered tree bark. It was washed with an acetic acid solution to decolorize and held in a muffle furnace at 650° C. to dry again. The effect of activation temperature of activated carbon was studied. We found that the continuous release of volatiles and combustion of carbon via weak carbon-CO2 oxidation resulted in significant weight loss during the activation process, resulting in an increase in solid density and a decrease in bulk density. I was. The adsorption properties of Vagai bark were studied in a batch system by considering the influence of various parameters such as contact time, initial concentration, pH, temperature, stirring speed and absorption amount. Adsorption was pH dependent, with maximum adsorption capacity observed at pH 4.5–5.8. Haze and dissolved solids removal efficiencies are 98% and 97%, respectively. The results showed that the low-cost biosorbent was effective in removing contaminants in wastewater..
Soil stabilisation is any process which improves the physical properties of soil, such as increasing shear strength, bearing capacity etc. which can be done by use of controlled compaction or addition of suitable admixtures like cement, lime and waste materials like fly ash, phosphogypsum etc. The cost of introducing these additives has also increased in recent years which opened the door widely for the development of other kinds of soil additives such as plastics, bamboo etc.. Use of plastic products such as polythene bags, bottles etc. is increasing day by day leading to various environmental concerns. Therefore the disposal of the plastic wastes without causing any ecological hazards has become a real challenge. Thus using plastic bottles as a soil stabiliser is an economical utilization since there is scarcity of good quality soil for embankments. This project involves the detailed study on the possible use of waste plastic bottles for soil stabilisation. The analysis was done by conducting plate load tests on soil reinforced with layers of plastic bottles filled with sand and bottles cut to halves placed at middle and one third positions of tank. The comparison of test results showed that cut bottles placed at middle position were the most efficient in increasing strength of soil. The optimum percentage of plastic strips in soil was found out by California Bearing Ratio Test and using this percentage of plastic, plate load test was also performed. The size and content of strips of waste plastic bottles have significant effect on the enhancement of strength of the soil..
The primary goal of this investigation is to contrast two different polyamide composite mixes with creative thermal properties in terms of their morphological and thermal characteristics. The two separate polyamide composite mixes extruded in the form of wire by twin screw extrusion are polyamide-6 (PA6) reinforced with 5, 15 and 25 weight percent glass fibre (GF) and PA6 reinforced with 5, 15 and 25 weight percent glass beads (GB). The experimental study demonstrates how to print the specimens using a three-dimensional (3D) printer that is based on Fusion Deposition Modeling (FDM). The responses of composites, including their morphology, Thermal Conductivity (TC), and Heat Distortion Temperature (HDT), were evaluated. The findings contrast the growing TC and HDT thermal characteristics of the 3D-printed specimen with the increase in bead content over the course of the study. The PA6 matrix's thermal characteristics are enhanced by the GB, a crystalline material, while the PA6 matrix's high modulus is provided by the GF, a dimensionally stable material. In comparison to neat PA6 matrix reinforced with 05, 15, and 25 wt.% GF, it was found that neat PA6 matrix reinforced with 05, 15, and 25 wt.% GB had much higher thermal properties. The thermal characteristics of PA6+25% GB are improved, and this could provide new opportunities for industrial uses such electrical, aerospace, and automotive components..
Iron deficiency is considered to be the commonest worldwide deficiencies. Nowadays peoples are affected due to anaemic mainly children’s and young adolescents. The aim of our present study is to fortify the Iron in Ice cream using Spinach Powder, Chickpea powder and Pistachio powder to avoid the deficiency. The fortified Ice cream was prepared by literature recipes. The ingredients used for the preparation of fortified Ice cream was optimized by using Minitab 16. There was no changes in Protein and Fat, slight difference occurs in the minerals like (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn). The increase in Total solid was due to the loss of moisture. The titratable acidity of sample was increased significantly while there was a decrease in pH during storage. The decrease in overrun occurs during cold storage. The optimum conditions for the best sensory score of the two outputs were obtained are: Milk-1000 ml, Spinach powder-7 g, Chickpea powder-7 g, and Pistachio Powder-5.98 g. From the study it was concluded that there was a slight difference occurs in presence of Iron during cold storage..
Aminoguanidine (Agun) in aqueous solution neutralizes H4edta (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and H4cdta (cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid) and replaces two acidic protons with lower pKa values to yield new salts such as diaminoguanidinium dihydrogenethylenediaminetetraacetate trihydrate, (Agun)2H2edta.3H2O (L1) and diaminoguanidiniumdihydrogencyclohexanediaminetetraacetate, (Agun)2H2cdta.H2O (L2) respectively. Two new copper(II) complexes, (Agun)[Cu(Hedta)].3H2O (C1) and (Agun)[Cu(Hcdta)].H2O (C2) have been prepared using the above ligands by the aqueous reaction between the respective ligand and copper(II) nitrate tetrahydrate in 2:1 ratio. The composition of the salts and complexes wasdone by using the basis of hydrazine, analytical and spectral techniques such as elemental analyses, IR, UV-Visible, TG-DTA, in which conformed their formation. Single crystals of (L1), (C1) and (C2) were isolated and their structures were determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of compound L1 reveals that this salt exists as a zwitterion in solid-state. The structural data of C1and C2shows some interesting features. Aminoguanidinium cation acts as a charge neutralizing species which is quite expected due to the steric reasons and hence could not be accommodated in the primary coordination sphere. Water molecules and aminoguanidine ion are involved in hydrogen bonding interactions and present in the secondary coordination sphere. The compound strongly bound to CT-DNA (Calf-Thymus DNA) through intercalation. The complexes have shown significant growth inhibitory activity against selected types of bacteria namely S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, and five fungi namely C. albicans, C. tropicalis, T. rubrum, A. niger, A. fumigatus. Tests on cell proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7), human lung cancer lines (A-549) and human cervical cell lines (HeLa) were performed for all the compounds. The new water-soluble complexes overcome cisplatin resistance in the MCF-7, A-549, and HeLa cell lines. All the compounds were found to be non-toxic against human normal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). The biological studies indicated that the complex C4 exhibited better activity among the compounds and the complexes exhibited biological activity in the following order C2>C1>L2>L1..
Environmentally degradable plastic material Polytetrafluoroethylene is not used as material in air filters.In this paper attempt is made to use Environmentally degradable plastic material polytetrafluoroethylene as air filter. This is an innovative paper which replaces borosilicate sand like material used in air filter with plastic material polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). For this two plastic materials polypropylene and polytetrafluorethylene materials airflow flow properties are analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and compared with air flow properties of borosilicate. From the results polylytetrafluoroethylene found to be perfectly alright.It can be efficiently used as air filter..
In a developing country like India, forensic science plays a major role in curbing crime rates. In a statistical survey released by the National Crime Records Bureau in 2018, 91 rapes, 80 murders and 289 kidnappings have been reported daily on an average basis across the country. The rate of offences not just physical but also white collar and cyber-crimes have increased rapidly over the years. Forensic science is now being considered as an emerging branch to effectively solve and prevent offences. Forensic science was not non-existent in the country but rather its importance has been underplayed a lot resulting in huge number of pending cases and trials in the court. Lack of technical expertise, proper knowledge and efficient resources have led to increased crime rates and poor disposal of duties. Forensic science justifies the offences and penalties mentioned in the Indian Penal Code and the procedures of Criminal Procedure Code. The very popular dual murder case of a teenager girl and the domestic help shocked the entire nation. The lag in delivering justice was traced back to the poor investigation methods followed by the police. Most of the evidences were either damaged or contaminated and the forensic team was not informed to collect evidences. Patterned evidences like fingerprints, palm prints, blood spatter can only be properly collected and documented by forensic scientists. The initial step towards any investigation involves the barricading of the entire crime scene. In most of the crime scenes, local people including on-lookers and media often trespass the scene and form the major source of evidence damage and contamination..
Fourier Ptychography is a technique that is different from conventional microscopy used to construct a high-resolution image from several low-resolution images of the same scene. In this method, LED arrays replace the light source of a conventional microscope. LEDs are turned on in succession to take low-resolution images. As the position of the LED changes then the Fourier Transform of the image shifts. This method is better than conventional microscopy as there is moving parts and hence the results do not suffer from position accuracy. It helps to get an aberration-free large field of view of an image. In this paper, the imaging procedures in Fourier Ptychography are studied and the forward imaging model, recovery process, aberration correction, and sampling requirements are also discussed..
Pristine and Cu doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were prepared by chemical hydrolysis technique. Synthesized TiO2 was characterized by XRD technique and it reveals that the samples are of tetragonal structure with anatase phase. The spherical morphology of the nanoparticles was observed from SEM. Optical absorbance and emissions were studied using UV–vis and photoluminescence spectra. The absorbance spectrum revealed the increase of band-gap for higher Cu doping from the un-doped TiO2 leads to enhancing the Voc. J-V measurements reveals that 3% Cu doped TiO2 shows 18% of efficiency enhancement compared to bare TiO2..
The need for water consumption not only for humans but also the other living things as natural supporting elements for continuity of life. Water consumption depends on the availability of water resources like rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Certainly, water becomes limited natural resources most of them because of water pollutions. It is necessary to manage water quality to fulfil the sustainability of water functions as natural resources; we create an integrated system based on Internet of Things to measuring the water quality by developing environmental water management monitoring system using sensors. The use of Arduino uno as an embedded system will help in the manufacture of detecting sensors device and the use of remote communications technology can help the interaction of sending data between things. Traditional methods of drinking water quality parameters like turbidity, pH, conductivity and temperature etc., may consume time as samples are tested manually in the laboratory. To overcome this, in the current article an attempt has been made for developing the smart and low-cost IoT system. The parameters considered to test the quality of water are Temperature, Turbidity, pH, Conductivity. Sensors immersed in sampled water are used to measure the above said parameters. All the sensed data will be send to the required mobile with the help of IOT..
A developing method of computer microscopy called Fourier Ptychography can provide images of samples at a gigapixel resolution. An important tradeoff between a microscope's resolution and field of view is addressed by Fourier Ptychography without the need for any moving parts, merely requiring a reconstruction program and the attachment of an LED array to a standard digital microscope. This paper explains the ptychographic imaging, extended ptychograhic imaging, and incoherent imaging and hence discusses the result obtained from these methods on cameraman image..
: The present work focuses on theoretical calculations of Rayleigh scattering cross sections for elements in range 1 ≤ Z ≤ 92. It is decided to calculate the theoretical Rayleigh scattering cross sections using Form Factor approach and state of the art S-Matrix approach at incident photon energies in X-ray energy region. It is also decided to develop a proper method to calculate the theoretical values at incident energies near the subshell binding energies. In the experimental measurements various radioisotopes like 55Fe, 109Cd, 241Am are used as the source of x-ray photons by researchers mostly. Some also employed the X-ray tube setups with secondary excitation mode. In the present work, a sincere review has been done for the theoretically and experimentally evaluated values of Rayleigh scattering cross sections. The theoretical values for some of the references are reproduced using the same approaches and the issues regarding some deviations observed are addressed..
: Photonic crystals (PCs) that include magnetic constituent materials or even just a magnetic flaw display highly distinctive optical and magneto-optical capabilities. In present review article, we examined the research on photonic crystals (PCs), also known as photonic band gap materials, which are 1D, 2D and 3D superstructures with periods that are comparable to the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation of magnetic constituents. The inclusion of magnetically arranged components is the fundamental attribute of this new type of PCs with external magnetic field. Further, we discussed with details about theoretical, simulation, and experimental developments in magneto-photonic crystals research. After that, we reviewed how photonic crystals came to exist with historical development in the field of ferrite photonic crystals..
: In developing technologies, Bragg fibre & Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) is crucial for optical communication and sensing applications. This article focuses on the operation of fibre bragg grating sensors, various fabrication methods, numerous fibre bragg grating types, and current real-time applications, including undersea acoustics, the oil and gas industry, and structural health monitoring systems for aeroplanes. Many optical technologies, including optical fibre communication and sensing applications, are focusing more and more on one of the crucial optical components, such as Bragg Fiber. A FBG, which is included into a short fibre segment and functions as a type of distributed Bragg reflector, reflects specific light's wavelengths while transmitting all others. This is achieved by regularly changing the refractive index of the fibre core, which produces a mirror with a certain wavelength. The area of fibre optic communication witnessed revolutionary advancements due to the implementation of the fibre Bragg grating as the dispersion correction element..
In this paper, an attempt was made for enhancing the micromachining characteristics of Hastelloy C276. For drilling holes in the Hastelloy, Copper Nano powder assisted electrochemical micromachining process was used. By fluctuating important electro chemical machining process parameters such as concentration of NaBr electrolyte, machining voltage and concentration of Cu Nano powder, holes were drilled. Using central composite design model, twenty different drilling experiments were conducted. Relationships were developed to establish relationship between the electro chemical drilling process parameters and output responses such as material removal rate and overcut at the interior side. Using analysis of variance, the significance of the developed model was ascertained to a high level of certainty. Using response surface methodology, the micromachining process parameters were optimized. At optimized concentration of Na Br electrolyte of 11.2 g/l, machining voltage of 7.4 V, Cu concentration of3.3 g, highest material removal rate of 0.000196622 and least entry side overcut of 0.208768. As the error obtained in validation experiments were lesser than 4% the optimization model was found to be developed with high predictability. The variations in the hole edges were evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy..
Fall is the most significant causes of injury for elderly or epilepsy. This has led to develop a many types of automatic fall detection systems. However, prevalent methods only accelerometers to isolate falls from activities of daily living (adl). This paper proposes combination of a Simple threshold method and acceleration measurement to detect Falls and falldetection. To demonstrate the activity of proposed scheme a device has been designed. We used an arduinouno, also we used mpu6050 as a sensor and we can Measure the velocity and acceleration by calculate the derivative for the phase this program was c several fall califeature parameters and possible falls are use Language. Brated through an algorithm. The implementation of program built to read an analogue variable from its port as an additional adjustment to fixed the upper and the lower. The total sum Acceleration vector acc to distinguish between falling and adl. The resu lts using the simple threshold, pmu, and combination of the simple method and mpu were compared and analyzed. The proposed mpu reduced the complexity of the Hardware also the algorithm exhibited high accuracy.
The abundant digital data access through Internet has raised the issue of secured data transmission. The most promising methods for secured data transmission are Steganography and cryptography. In cryptography technique makes the data unintelligible and in steganography technique the secret message is hidden. The excellent carriers of hidden information is through Digital Images. In this proposed approach the steganography and cryptography technique are combined together as high-performance JPEG steganography along with a substitution encryption methodology. A discrete cosine transform (DCT) technique is used with frequency domain for hiding encrypted data within image. Based on the experimental analysis the encrypted visual and the statistical values of the image before the insertion is similar to the values after insertion and reduces the chance of the confidential message being detected and enables the secret communication. The proposed methodology analyzes the Mean square error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) to estimate the effectiveness of proposed method..
The overall demand of concrete per year is 11.5 billion tons. This means that, in addition to 1.5 billion tonnes of cement, the concrete industry is consuming annually 9 billion tonnes of sand and rock together with one billion tonne of mixing water. One of the major challenges, with the environmental awareness is exhaustion of river sand resources due to massive consumption. If adequate and reliable sand resources cannot soon be found economic development is bound to be affected. Inconvenient transportation raises the cost of river sand resources. In the present work, literature on the use of sea sand as replacement of fine aggregate has been studied. Various mechanical properties such as compressive strength and split tensile strength are determined at 7, 14 and 28 days along with durability tests at 28 days. Comparative strength development of sea sand mixes in relation to the control mix i.e. mix without sea sand was evaluated..
Chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) have unquestionably become the most widely used materials in the field of electronics, medicine, detection etc. ChGs are being actively studied to enhance their future uses. Among many of their magnificent properties is the thermoelectric (TE) property which is attracting many researchers towards these materials. By implementing advanced nanoscience and nanotechnology, numerous fresh TE materials with high figure of merit (ZT) are produced. This is particularly true for materials based on metal chalcogenides, which among all the various types of thermoelectric materials have relatively high ZT and low cost. In the present work, we have summarized the main parameters which decides whether the material is suitable for TE applications or not like Seebeck Coefficient (S), electrical conductivity (σ) and power factor (P) for various systems..
The protection of photosensitive objects from lasers is highly required, particularly, in the field of defence. Such devices are called Optical limiters. High transmission for low inputs is essential so that the device must have low linear absorption. So, the materials showing two-photon-absorption (TPA) and third order non-linear optical properties become desired candidates for optical limiting devices. The transparency of chalcogenide glasses lies up to the mid infra-red. They show large Kerr nonlinearity and have ultrafast response time. These properties make chalcogenide glasses a suitable candidate for optical limiting. In the present work an overview of the experimental parameters required for optimized optical limiting applications have been reviewed and presented..
Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) in micrometre thin film attract significant attention due to wide range applications as sensor, transducers, MEMS and energy harvesting. The properties like high magnetoelectric (ME) coupling, breakdown strength, remanent polarization, electric field coupling, ease of miniaturization along with ferroelectric, dielectric and optical properties make it as versatile material for such applications. For effective results, the selection of fabrication technique to prepare a particular solid solution is of significance. Depending on the study undertaken, the different fabrication techniques are used for the preparation of thin film. The prepared PZT thin films were tested using suitable characterization techniques. Some findings and their critical analysis based on research studies undertaken are presented in this article..
Gallium Nitride (GaN) is a versatile material due to its direct and wide band gap, robust thermal stability, high electric breakdown field, high saturation velocity, high electron mobility and lower capacitance. But for power device applications, the choice of substrate, which match, the lattice as well physical properties have been a great challenge in fabrication process of High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT). The materials Silicon, Sapphire, Silicon Carbide and Aluminum Nitride has been tried as substrate in heterojunction development, and a significant improvement in characteristics features of GaN HEMT for high frequency power applications have been reported. The present paper critically analyzes, the development of HEMT in relation to substrate choice and enhanced characteristics features..
In this paper, we discuss about using computer vision to identify human behaviour in security camera footage automatically. The majority of today's approaches calculate intricate characteristics by hand to use as the basis for classifiers. As a sort of deep model, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are capable of operating on unprocessed data. However, at the moment, such models can only process 2D data. In this study, we create an innovative 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) model for recognising actions. By using 3D convolutions, this model is able to extract features from color, temporal, geometrical, and spatial dimensions effectively capturing the moving objects included in a sequence of consecutive frames. The input frame are used to produce various channels of data, and these channel are combined to construct the final visual features using the generated model. We propose regularizing the outputs using high-level characteristics and integrating the predictions of several algorithms to even further enhance the results. Models are then put to use in the real world, namely airport surveillance films, where they outperform state-of-the-art approaches in recognising human behaviours..
Thin film is a layer of material ranging from fraction of a nanometer to several micrometers in thickness .The term “thin films” is widely used in science and technology, can be defined as a layer of gaseous ,liquid or solid state of matter, their thickness is generally in few Å (10-10m) range. They have large surface to volume ratio and so the surface play an important role in determining the film properties. Mathematically it can be defined as a homogenous solid material contained between two parallel planes and extended in two directions (say X and Y). But restricted along z direction. The dimension along z direction is film thickness. The field of material science and technology and engineering community’s ability to conceive the novel materials with extraordinary combination of chemical, physical and mechanical properties has changed in modern society. There is an increasing technology progress. Modern technology requires thin films for different applications. Thin films technology is the basic of astounding development in solid state in electronics. The usefulness of the optical properties of films, and scientific curiosity about the behavior of two- dimension solids has been responsible for the immense interest in the science and technology of the films. Thin film studies have directly or indirectly advanced many new areas of research in solid state physics and chemistry which or based on phenomena uniquely characteristic of the thickness, geometry, and structure of the film ..
Consumer durables have emerged as one of the fastest growing industries in India. Once seeming as luxury items, consumer durables today have become as an essential tool of everyday use for the Indian middle class families. The largest causative sector among durables is white goods, also known as consumer appliances, like air conditioners, refrigerators, mixer grinder, wet grinder and washing machines. Consumers’ attitude and purchase preferences have been immensely changing all over the world for the past few years predominantly in the Indian white goods market due to the entry of foreign brands which create grave competition as well as broad choice for buyers. Every marketer is embarrassed to find out factors for which buyers give much importance and how far they are fulfilled with these factors. In this research examines the purchase behaviour and attitude of buyers towards selected white goods such as refrigerator, washing machineandwet grinder. The research is descriptive in nature and data were collected through well-structured online and offline questionnaires with the sample size of 500. The study has been done in Mannachanallur in tiruchirappalli district. The main objectives of the study are to find out factors which influence buyers for the purchase of white goods. To Study the buying behaviour of the consumer..
The former President of India Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam uttered to the students that “Dream it, so that you can succeed”. A strong India would be created with the hands of youngsters. But will it be happen?. The current media target and attach the consumers are with effective plan, and enlighten with glamour as per the emotions, needs, wants and demands of the consumers. Marketers and companies are spending billions of dollars on consumer research and to know the important factors involved in consumer decision making. While talking about the marketing mix now a days marketers main focus is on designing persuasive messages/commercials to attract the target customers. Because the major chunk of the population and among all consumption of household a considerable portion is of children products. So marketers are focusing and trying to attract and influence the children by designing ads that are considerably attractive for children and persuasive enough for their emotional attachment with the product..
Geo polymers are the materials based on pure aluminosilicate source materials such as fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag obtained from industrial, activated with an alkali metal hydroxide and silicate solution. Geopolymerisation is a complex multiphase exothermic process, involving a series of dissolution-reorientation-solidification reactions analogous to those observed in zeolite synthesis. High alkaline solutions are used to induce the silicon and aluminium atoms in the source material to dissolve and form Geopolymer gel. The sol gel formation (or polymerization) may be assisted by application of heat, followed by drying. The usage of ground granulated blast furnace slug made the geopolymer motor to cure at the room temperature. The Geopolymer gel binds the loose coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and un-reacted source material to form Geopolymer composites. The Portland cement free Geopolymer composites have many advantages like less curing time, earlier development of higher mechanical strength, very little drying shrinkage and very low creep, excellent resistance to sulphate attack, good acid resistance and resistance to high temperature. The strength development in Geopolymer composites depends on the chemical composition, morphology and reactivity of source materials, chemical composition of activating solution and curing process..
This chapter covers the theoretical approach of photon-atom interaction and subsequent inner shell vacancy decay processes. The foremost interaction processes, viz., photoionisation and scattering processes have been discussed. The near edge processes, viz., resonant Raman scattering (RRS) is also explained. These processes become significant at the incident photon energies in the vicinity of the ionization threshold of the target atom. The X-ray diffraction process is explained. The powder XRD gives information about the crystal lattice dimensions, which is further used to identify the chemical phase of the element present in the sample..
In the case of the human body, the central aspect of metabolism is the demand for oxygenated blood to complete the process. Wastes and deoxygenated blood must be pushed out of the many organs in the body due to metabolism for the human body to continue functioning. As the body's pumping organ, the heart pumps oxygenated blood to all body regions and eliminates wastes and deoxygenated blood. As a result, it is critical to have frequent check-ups to ensure optimal cardiac care. There are a variety of causes for this, including genetic background and some acquired habits that can hurt the heart. Several research studies have been published investigating human heart health prediction. In this study, we looked at 304 patient cases and attempted to identify the significant risk factors that could cause heart difficulties. This study aims to present a work that can be used as a first step in determining a probability score for a cardiac condition. The various risk factors can be the primary cause of a heart problem. This study looked at different categorization models to pinpoint cardiac conditions. The fundamental goal of such an activity is to give a straightforward solution that can assist the patient in determining whether there is a statistical chance that a heart problem will occur. This solution is not intended to replace a medical practitioner but to assist any doctor in their diagnosis process. This procedure ensures that the therapy between a doctor and a patient is transparent. The number of False Positives and False Negatives produced by the model is verified, and the optimum algorithm for prediction is chosen based on that..
The large number of automobiles in use around the world has caused and continues to cause serious problems of environment and human life. Air pollution, global warming, and the rapid depletion of the earth’s petroleum resources are now serious problems. Electric Vehicles (EVs), Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) have been typically proposed to replace conventional vehicles in the near future. Most electric and hybrid electric configurations use two energy storage devices, one with high energy storage capability, called the “main energy system” (MES), and the other with high power capability and reversibility, called the “rechargeable energy storage system” (RESS). MES provides extended driving range, and RESS provides good acceleration and regenerative braking. Energy storage or supply devices vary their output voltage with load or state of charge and the high voltage of the DC-link create major challenges for vehicle designers when integrating energy storage / supply devices with a traction drive. DC-DC converters can be used to interface the elements in the electric power train by boosting or chopping the voltage levels. Due to the automotive constraints, the power converter structure has to be reliable, lightweight, small volume, with high efficiency, low electromagnetic interference and low current/voltage ripple. Thus, in this chapter, a comparative study on three DC/DC converters topologies (Conventional step-up dc-dc converter, interleaved 4-channels step-up dc-dc converter with independent inductors and Full-Bridge step-up dc-dc converter) is carried out. The modeling and the control of each topology are presented. Simulations of 30KW DC/DC converter are carried out for each topology. This study takes into account the weight, volume, current and voltage ripples, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and the efficiency of each converter topology..
Cavitation is formation of vapour bubbles of flowing liquid. Vaporization of the liquid start When the flowing liquid in a system, the pressure at any point is equal to or less than vapour pressure. These vapour bubbles are creating high impact pressure and collapse metallic surface and induce the noise, vibration and decrease the efficiency of centrifugal pump and hydraulic turbine. In this paper deals with preventative measure against cavitation in various aspect was discussed..
In transformation of resources like power the multilevel inverters are the best technology. Output as stair waveform signal feed as input to many of the DC sources. The description of multilevel inverter topology is described in the paper. The presentation consist of 7 level architecture principle and to obtain best quality of output signal the algorithm of adaptive genetic is adopted to slow down the harmonic content. In actual time the evaluations of appropriate switching angle used to analyse the THD minimization. The overall observations are declined based on 7 level to cases in other levels and THD determination in various states. These studies are based on MATLAB simulation and programming. The proposed work is simulated using MATLAB software which gives the model accuracy rate of 80% with the lesser error rate. The multilevel inverter designed using the proposed method removes the harmonic function at various input voltage with the minimum loss factors..
The concept of fuzzy logic is based near the human thinking and natural activities. It presents predicates which are present in nature and similar to those either big or small. This theory mimics human psychology as to how a person makes the decision faster. Fuzzy logic is a superset of conventional (Boolean) logic that has been extended to handle the concept of partial truth values between completely true and completely false. It can be implemented in hardware, software, or a combination of both. It can be built into anything from small, hand-held products to large computerized process control systems. In the present competitive scenario the fuzzy logic system are being adopted by the automotive manufacturers for the improvement of quality and reduction of development time and the cost as well. Fuzzy logic was conceived as a better method for sorting and handling data but has proven to be an excellent choice for many control system applications..
This chapter consists a common fixed point theorem for weakly com patible self mappings satisfying (CLR) property in the framework of C∗−algebra valued symmetric spaces..
This chapter consists a common fixed point theorem for weakly com patible self mappings satisfying E.A. property in the framework of C∗−algebra valued symmetric spaces..
The overall demand of concrete per year is 11.5 billion tons. This means that, in addition to 1.5 billion tonnes of cement, the concrete industry is consuming annually 9 billion tonnes of sand and rock together with one billion tonne of mixing water. One of the major challenges, with the environmental awareness is exhaustion of river sand resources due to massive consumption. If adequate and reliable sand resources cannot soon be found economic development is bound to be affected. Inconvenient transportation raises the cost of river sand resources. In the present work, literature on the use of sea shell as replacement of fine aggregate has been studied. Various mechanical properties such as compressive strength and split tensile strength are determined at 7, 14 and 28 days along with durability tests at 28 days. Comparative strength development of sea shell mixes in relation to the control mix i.e. mix without SEA SHELL was evaluated..
N, N-Dimethylphenethyl amine is a scaffold present in many pharmacophores like Venlafaxine, isoquinolines-based anti-biotics and many oncological drugs. The lithiation-substitution reactions of these scaffolds played a vital role in the development of these drugs and helped synthetic organic chemists to design the process of development for many existing APIs. Hence the feasibility and regioselectivity of lithiation-substitution reaction on these scaffolds have been delineated under different reaction conditions..
Lithiation-substitution protocol is a significant tool for the formation of a new C-C bond in heteroatom-containing compounds. This strategy has been extensively explored to synthesize many heterocyclic drugs and drug intermediates. These reactions are always considered very complex and many research groups have worked to explore the regioselectivity and stereoselectivity of these reactions. The feasibility of these reactions is affected by many factors like the nature of the lithiation reagent, solvent and temperature. In this chapter, we will discuss in detail the different lithiating reagents, the effect of solvent, temperature, regioselectivity and stereoselectivity. This chapter will also deal with the different mechanistic aspects involved in the regioselective and stereoselective outcomes of the lithiation-substitution reaction..
Diabetes mellitus represents a growing international public health issue with a near quadrupling in its worldwide prevalence since 1980. Though it has many known microvascular complications, vision loss from diabetic retinopathy is one of the most devastating for affected individuals. In addition, there is increasing evidence to suggest that diabetic patients have a greater risk for glaucoma as well. Though the pathophysiology of glaucoma is not completely understood, both diabetes and glaucoma appear to share some common risk factors and pathophysiologic similarities with studies also reporting that the presence of diabetes and elevated fasting glucose levels are associated with elevated intraocular pressure – the primary risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. While no study has completely addressed the possibility of detection bias, most recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that diabetic populations are likely enriched with glaucoma patients. As the association between diabetes and glaucoma becomes better-defined, routine evaluation for glaucoma in diabetic patients, particularly in the telemedicine setting, may become a reasonable consideration to reduce the risk of vision loss in these patients..
In this chapter, we have highlighted the importance of α-oxoketene dithioacetals as versatile synthons in various transformation reactions for the construction of substituted heterocycles. Five, six and seven membered heterocycles can be efficiently synthesized by using different reaction conditions..
Palladium is the most versatile metal in the transition series. Palladium can initiate a wide variety of organic reactions such as arylation, alkylation, hydrogenation, cyclization, oxidation, cross-coupling, isomerization, radical reactions, cascade, etc. Most of these reactions occur in mild conditions. It can be used in both laboratory and industrial scale. Despite many uses of palladium, new novel and efficient methods are still exploring. Now the focus is more towards sustainability of the process. This article focuses on the synthesis of five-membered nitrogen-containing heterocycles using palladium as a catalyst. Heterocycles plays an important role in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and as veterinary products. Some of the natural products e.g. antibiotics and alkaloids have heterocyclic moiety. In this study, we have included palladium catalyzed synthesis of pyrroles, pyrrolidines, imidazolidines, pyrazoles, triazoles and tetrazoles of last one decay..
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a new solid state connection process for soft materials such as aluminium and magnesium alloys because it avoids many of the common problems associated with fusion welding.In this process, a cylindrical-shouldered tool with a profiled probe is turned at a constant speed and fed at a constant traverse rate into the joint line between two pieces of plate material, which are butted together. The weld quality and cost is mainly dominated by selection of appropriate process parameters in friction stir welding technique.FSW has many welding parameters such as tool rotation speed, welding speed, tool tilt angle, tool material, pin profile and shoulder diameter. Here we review and critically examine several important aspects of process parameters on friction stir welding of magnesium alloy..
In our day-to-day life the application of the electronic device plays a major role. As the technology develops the size of the devices are being decreased. It leads to wide usage of the FPGA devices and power consumption limits its application. The most of the electronic devices are battery operated devices. So power consumption is very essential criteria. The power consumption is based on static power and dynamic power. Static power consumption mainly depends on leakage power. The lookup table based fine grain power gating technique and effective utilization of logic block is used to reduce the leakage power. This technique is utilized to reduce the leakage power consumption in FPGA controlled device based on the concept of low power design and effective utilization of logic blocks..
Every production and service system is under intense pressure to operate at maximum efficiency in the current climate of global competition in order to maintain low product prices. Customers today desire a choice of products. It is common knowledge that growing product variety adds complexity and reduces system efficiency. The manufacturing system deals with a wide range of products and is extremely productive. Due to the wide range of models, expensive infrastructure, and demanding clients, the automotive industry is one of the primary contributors to the Indian economy. As a result, the management of automobile service centres is becoming more difficult. Each vehicle that enters the automobile service centre has a unique set of repair and maintenance requirements, and it also has characteristics of a job shop production system. The automobile service centre shares a number of characteristics with supply chain management, maintenance management, and service management. The goal of this study is to construct models that depict how key success elements interact utilising approaches like Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Analytical Hierarchy Processes (AHP), and Analytical Network Processes (ANP). Among others, similar job shops, such as mobile phones, two-wheelers, and laptops can use it..
Bandwidth is the ever demanding requirement for high data rate transmission in a communication system. Most of the electromagnetic transmission including mobile, TV, radio, satellite, radio astronomy and radar applications happens in the radio frequency (RF) band. Due to limited spectra or bandwidth in RF range, modern communication requirement pushed technological and research community to utilize the terahertz and sub-terahertz frequency band (30GHz to 10 THz) which is left idle and unusable for microwave radio communication since a long time back, but there are a number of challenges such as absorption due to water vapour, high range of attenuation, increase in dispersion, issues of synchronization and decrement in the received power level at such higher frequencies. This paper reviews the available modern technological developments in the 2D metamaterials, metasurfaces and graphene metasurfaces which have turned the THz frequency band realistic for microwave applications..
Episiotomy is a common surgical procedure performed during second stage of labour to enlarge the vaginal introitus and facilitate delivery. Although episiotomy aids in safe delivery of the child, the discomfort of episiotomy is an added concern in the already over stressed situation of puerperium. Postpartum period is a period when the mother experiences intense physical and emotional stress due to exhaustion anxiety and excitement. Episiotomy pain often interferes with even basic daily activities of the postnatal mother. Considering the high rates of episiotomy, following vaginal deliveries, we need to offer patients treatment alternatives for perineal pain, based on scientific evidence. To compare the pre and posttest level of wound healing scores among post-natal mothers in experimental group I (Betadine sitzbath). To compare the pre and posttest level of wound healing scores among post-natal mothers in experimental group II (Lavendor oil sitzbath). To compare the effectiveness of posttest level of wound healing scores among postnatal mothers between experimental group I&II. To find out the association between the posttest level of episiotomy wound healing scores with their selected demographic variables in experimental group I. (betadine sitzbath) To find out the association between the posttest level of episiotomy wound healing scores with their selected demographic variables in experimental group II. (Lavender oil sitzbath). A Quasi-Experimental (two group pre-test, post-test) design was used for this study. The sample size consisted of 60 primi postnatal mothers who had normal vaginal delivery with episiotomy, it is clearly proved by this study that Lavendor oil Sitzbath is effective more than betadine sitz bath on episiotomy wound healing..
A project manager is the person with overall responsibility for the successful initiation, planning, design, execution, monitoring, management, and completion of a project. The project manager is responsible for completing the project within time, cost, and quality to make the project successful. The construction industry plays an important role in the country's economy. However, the industry faces many challenges, including: B. Deliver projects within cost, time, and quality. A project manager is therefore a critical resource in achieving project goals. Unfortunately, the project manager role is often overlooked. The project manager's leadership role is assumed to be measured in terms of time, cost, quality, and customer satisfaction. The importance of this study is to identify the different roles that project managers can play in improving project performance. Good project management practices and competent project managers always lead to better results..
The study primarily focuses on the cutting-edge digital innovations that represent today's new viewpoint for the construction business. The paper's goal is to describe the latest, cutting-edge digital technologies being employed in the construction industry, which will improve job quality and environmental sustainability. Innovation is currently a necessity of the situation, and all industries are attempting to increase the acceptability of new innovative digital techniques in their work in order to reach the new business dimensions. The significance of digitization and how it is applied in the construction business are discussed in the article. The study concentrated primarily on the benefits of environmental sustainability as well as future digital views, which are already applied in building and giving the situation a new working aspect. In the construction industry, a networked value constellation has been identified and realized with the help of professionals (including a standardization body), software companies, and our technology transfer Centre. This paper demonstrates how this innovation process has been applied to this business case..
Chlorophyll is an antioxidant which usually found in nature especially in green leafy plants. The chlorophyll content of eight mulberry varieties such as AR12,S13, S146, S1635 andTR10 and their effects on silkworm growth were studied. Total chlorophyll of all the varieties was extracted individually using acetone as solvent and detected using spectrophotometer at two wavelengths (645 nm and 663 nm). The maximum total chlorophyll content was observed in S146. The bottom leaves of S146 showed highest chlorophyll content (21.115 mg/g) compared to apical (13.338 mg/g) and middle (20.567 mg/g) leaves. The diseased leaves of S146 showed least quantity of chlorophyll content (12. 342 mg/g). The silkworm fed with S146 mulberry leaves showed better rearing performance than the worms fed by leaves of other varieties. S146 fed larvae showed better cocoon performance effective rate of rearing (ERR %), cocoon weight, pupa weight, shell weight and filamentlength compared to other mulberry varieties. It shows the effect of chlorophyll content on rearing performance of B.mori..
The nutritional value of mulberry leaves is greatly considered not only the food for silkworm but also regarded as a best supplementary food for cattle’s. The present study was aimed to determine before and after feeding of mulberry leaves of the cow milk.Energy– dispersive X–ray (EDX) spectrum of elements such as O, Na, Mg, S, P, Cl, K and Ca were found in the cow milk.Oxygen was observed in the highest (69.9 %) weight and magnesium was least (0.97 %) weight in cow milk after the feeding of mulberry leaves and before feeding of cow milk sulphur was least (1.29 %) weight and oxygen was highest (83.64 %) weight observed..
A field experiment was conducted at J. S. University shikohabad U.P. agriculture farm house during the winter seasons of 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 to study the Different Wheat Variety and Sowing Methods on Grain Yield of Wheat crop. Variety comprises of PBW-343 and PBW-502 were allocated in main plot whereas three sowing methods System of wheat intensification (SWI) at 22 cm × 22 cm, Line sowing at 26 cm × continuous and broadcasting were allocated in sub-plot under split plot design with four replications. PBW502 variety gave higher grain yield as compared to PBW-343 variety. SWI at 22 cm × 22 cm recorded significantly higher tillers (269 and 256 m-2) as compared to line sowing at 26 cm and broadcasting during both the years. SWI at 22 cm × 22 cm spacing recorded significantly higher grain yield (3820 and 3915 kg/ha) during 2019-2020 and 2020-2021, respectively. But it was found at par with line sowing at 25 cm x continuous method. Economic analysis of different sowing methods showed that both line sowing and SWI were found superior over broadcasting method. Highest Net returns of NPR 73,185 and 63,545 was obtained from line sowing and SWI methods respectively..
This study is the assessment of physical and chemical characteristics of different commonly used water sources, including agricultural wetlands, fisheries wetland, and Lotus cultivated wetland, the locality of Bhatar, Purba Bardhaman. Here Lotus cultivated wetland known as Site-A, agricultural wetland was Site-B and fisheries wetland was Site-C. Water samples were collected and measured the following physical and chemical parameters as like temperature, pH, DO, BOD, COD, Phosphate, Chloride, Nitrate, Nitrite, Fluoride, and Zinc. The results showed that temperature was ranging from 19°C to 28°C, pH was 6.6 to 7.6, DO was between 5.9 to 8.1, BOD was 4.1 to 6.9, COD was ranging 0.83 to 1.89, Phosphate was limited 0.090 to 0.150, chloride was reached 6.3 to 9.2, nitrate was extent from 1.18 to 2.10, Nitrite and Fluoride were only found in agricultural wetland and Zinc was not found any of this study site. This work aims to assess the physico-chemical quality of these different sources of water which have also used multipurpose for economic development..
Haemovigilance is regarded to be the series of monitoring measures that embody the complete transfusions procedure ranging from monitoring of blood to the prevention of blood-related disease. The time period hemovigilance originated from the term “pharmacovigilance”, which contains operations and strategies to acquire intelligence precious in overseeing pharmaceutical goods, mainly adverse drug responses in humans, and to scientifically determine such data. This system is additionally an elemental phase of quality control in a blood system, bringing about corrective and preventive measures, and for the perpetual development of the high-quality and protection of blood products and the transfusion process. This follows the reporting device which consists of the enhancement of affected person safety. It additionally consists of mastering from disasters that end result in sure system modifications and hence prevents the related errors. It additionally consists of all key events and organizes numerous operations among blood banks, transfusion facilities, and health centre caregivers. The majority of affluent countries now use Haemovigilance to track adverse responses and occurrences related with blood donation and transfusion. This review focused the mild on haemovigilance: the blood transfusion procedure..
Study of soil on the tops ravines in the both protected and unprotected sites have been done to know their conservation, in which soil samples are collected to both ravine areas as protected and unprotected from three different depths as 0 - 15, 15 - 30, 30 - 60 cm. and six properties of soil have been studied such as sand, silt, clay, PH, organic carbon, nitrogen. Moreover to this ratio of carbon and nitrogen has also been recorded. Except silt, remaining properties of soil which studied are reduced in unprotected area’s of soil samples as table and graph are showing.
5G( 5th generation mobile networks) stand for the coming major phase of mobile telecommunications beyond the current 4G norms. 5G is 1000 time briskly than 4g. From generation 1G to2.5 G and from 3G to 5G this world of telecommunication has seen much advancement along with bettered performance with every passing day. This fast change in mobile networking gives us a change in our diurnal life routine to interact and learn etc. In this paper we punctuate on all generation of mobile network along with 5G network. The development of 5G technologies is because of a foundation for realizing improvements in the metamorphosis of ICT network structure. Because of Ultra-broadband and intelligent- pipe network features that achieve near-immediate, zero distance connectivity between people and connected machines no matter where they are just the first step. In this paper also we also bandy about the armature, waveform conception and conditions etc..
Oral modified-release multiple-unit dosage forms have always been more effective therapeutic alternative to conventional or immediate release single-unit dosage forms. With regards to the final dosage form, the multiparticulates are usually formulated into microspheres and filling them into hard gelatin capsules. Microspheres have received much attention not only for prolonged release, but also for targeting of drugs. In the current scenario, targeted drug delivery requires an efficient drug carrier which can deliver the drug specifically on the site of action in a sustained and controlled manner. Among many such carriers, microspheres fulfil all the parameters for a potent drug carrier. Microspheres are one of the multiparticulate delivery system which is prepared to obtain prolonged or controlled drug delivery. Microspheres are defined as free flowing powders of spherical shape, consisting of proteins or synthetic polymers, which are either biodegradable or nonbiodegradable in nature and ideally having a particle size ranging from 1–1000 μm. The variety of methods for the production of microspheres offers numerous opportunities to control the aspects of administration of the API. The current aim of this review is to study various aspects of the microparticulates drug delivery system including types of microsphere drug delivery system, method of formulation, evaluation & characterization of microspheres..
This paper is an attempt to explore the real worth of Hogwarts in the contemporary academic world of science and technology. Nowadays, the believer of science may question the validity of wand and magic. Yet, the popularity of Harry Potter Series throws a challenge to the ethos of twenty first century. Obviously therefore, IS Magic Realism still existing in the present millennium?.
The constitutive behaviour of rate-sensitive materials, the flow stress evolution and dislocation density, the generation of deformation heat, and other aspects of plastic deformation are all influenced by strain rate. A geometric method was used to assess the workpiece material strain rate during ECAP. The outcomes were contrasted with those of finite element studies performed on a model made of perfect plastic with different sizes of mesh. The obtained formula for the strain rate agrees with the finite element method's findings in a fair amount of detail. When using ECAP, the strain rate rises with falls with die channel angle, die corner angle, and workpiece and width punch speed . For analytical calculations of the distortion, thermal, and behaviour of material microstructural development during ECAP, the relationship derived can be applied. During ECAP process of materials, a die inner corner gap is typically discovered. It was determined how the corner gap development and deformation behaviour of the strain-hardening material and the nearly perfect plastic material. The strain hardening behaviour and the workpiece regional flow velocity in the deforming zone, the mechanism of corner gap generation is discussed. To more accurately predict the tension during ECAP, from the die corner angle to the workpiece arc curvature, the corner angle must be changed..
X-class flares and their association with super-active regions (SARs) were analyzed for 23-24 solar cycles. Results show that, total number of X-class flares occur simultaneously relate as (≥ X10) to 4.80 %, X5.0-X9.9 to 9.60%, X3.0-X4 to 12.80%, X2.0-X2.9 to 15.20%, X1.0-X1.9 to 57.60% for SC 23. Similarly, total number of X-class flares occur simultaneously relate as (≥ X10) to 0.00%, X5.0-X9.9 to 8.16%, X3.0-X4.9 to 8.16%, X2.0-X2.9 to 22.40% and X1.0-X1.9 to 61.20%. Distribution of X-class flares for the SC 23 and 24 shows scattered manner. It is also observed that, SC 24 was weak than SC 23 and the total number of X-class flares diminished in comparison to earlier solar cycles. SARs generated 29.16% of the X1.0-X1.9 flares, 36.84% of the X2.0-X2.9 flares, 43.75% of the X3.0-X4.9 flares, 83.33% of both the X5.0-X9.9 flares, and 100.00% of the ≥ X10 flares for SC 23 and 20.00% of the X1.0-X1.9 flares, 36.36% of the X2.0-X2.9 flares, 25.00% of the X3.0-X4.9 flares, 75.00% of the X5.0-X9.9 flares, and 0.00% of the ≥ X10 flares for SC 24..
The study of morphology of Lepidoptera has been a fact of great Charm for the insect lovers. The interest in insects started from behavioral (um-ecological approach, but the need to try understanding that the insects were doing and how they were doing it extended to morpho histology..
Field research was carried out during the Kharif seasonin2020 in a randomized block design with three replications involving eleven treatments to determine the effect of liquid biofertilizer on the growth and yield of ragi. The factors considered forthe study comprised different liquid biofertilizer practices. A common recommended fertilizer dose of 40N: 20 P2O5: 20 K2OKg ha-1 was used. The maximum dehydrogenaseactivity (g TPF g-1 dry soil 24 h-1), gross return (89824 ha-1), net return (62859 ha-1) and Benefit-Cost ratio (2.33) were gained under T1-100% RDF + Seed treatment with liquid biofertilizer (5 ml kg-1 Seed), followed by soil application of liquid biofertilizer (2.5-liter mix with 500kg/ha Farm Yard Manure applied in-furrow), under finger millet. The minimum gross return (36203 ₹ ha-1), net return (14703 ₹ ha-1), and Benefit: Cost ratio (0.68) was obtained under T11-(control) under finger millet crop..
In this study, the comparative investigation of antibacterial activities of Zinc oxide and Silver doped Zinc oxide (Ag-ZnO) towards different strains of bacteria was made. ZnO was prepared by Co-precipitation method while Ag doping was done by green reduction method. For microcrystalline and surface morphological characteristics, samples were introduced to X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Extensive growth of hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO with crystalline size of 38 nm was observed. On Ag doping crystalline size reduced to 24 nm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy confirms the doping of Ag in ZnO. Disc Diffusion Method was used to investigate antibacterial activity of ZnO and Ag doped ZnO by using Gentamycin as a standard. It was observed that silver doped ZnO showed better antibacterial activity..
A multicomponent, room temperature reaction between substituted isothiocyantes, amines and α-bromocarbonyl compound was carried out in dimethyl sulfoxide in the presence of the Triton-B to synthesize a library of 2-amino thizole. This process was found to be suitable for the synthesis of variety of 2-amino thiazoles using aliphatic and aromatic amines..
By considering the equations of the deformable barriers and the fluid, this study presents an analytical key for the peristaltic pumping of an incompressible Newtonian fluid through a uniform channel under the effect of compliant wall characteristics. Our focus is on the peristaltic motion of an incompressible Newtonian fluid and how it is affected by compliant wall features. The effects of sinusoidal waves on the channel walls are explored under the long wave length assumption. The necessary boundary value problem is solved by assuming small amplitudes. For different values of amplitude, wave speed, and wavelength as well as mass per unit area of membrane, several flow characteristics, including fluid velocity and mean velocity of interest, are illustrated and analyzed. All numerical work is performed in MATLAB 7.0..
Limited availability of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils is a major cause of poor growth and yield of crops throughout the world. Optimization of crops productivity can be achieved by increasing the bioavailability of P via phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), however, their effectiveness may vary with changing agro-climatic conditions That’s why current experiment was conducted to evaluate the poten- tial of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (with PSB and without PSB) in improving growth and yield of wheat under different P levels (0, 25, 50, and 100 % of recommended P). The PSB with 100% recommended P significantly enhanced wheat tillers m—2, grains spike-1, grains and biological yield compared to the rest of the treatment’s combination. A significant improvement in 100 grains weight and rate of photosynthe- sis also validated the efficacious functioning of PSB and full recommended P. Furthermore, PSB were effective in optimizing wheat yield attributes at respective P level compared to Without PSB. Our findings imply that, PSB application along with 100% recommended P as inorganic phosphorus has potential to enhance wheat growth and yield over sole application of P fertilizers or PSB..
21st century proclaimed as the era of information and communication technology. In today’s world,with the development of informationandcommunicationtechnology,everyoneisenteringaneraofchange. Without online technology, nobody can imagine their work-life. Online technology plays the most important role in the field of education. As time changes, teaching & learning methods also have changed. Traditionalmethodsofteachingwerethroughorationandmemorizationtechniques,butmodernmethodsuseinteractivemethods.This research paperhighlights the traditional to modern teaching transformation, comparative study, analysis of traditional & modern teaching techniques. The major contribution of this research paper is the survey on conventional & modern teaching methods..
The word airboat comprises of the two words namely Air and Boat . Boat is a means of transport of goods , people etc by means of water . Thus the boat which runs on the water surface by means of the propelling force derived from the air is called an airboat .The cons of the water propelled boat are that they require high fuel to run the motor which in turn runs the propeller . This costs high to the boatsmen which are having poor standard of living . Moreover the dirts present in the water stream also hinders the operation . The other factors which effects the performances are density of water , drag experienced by the boat and so on.This paper aims at design and fabrication of airboat which reduces the fuel cost ,friction and problems associated with density of the liquid over which the boat is moving. This paper states about the fabrication of an airboat model that comprises of a propeller fan powered by the 12 V dc supply and works on the principle of Newton’s third law .A rudder to change the direction of the boat due to effect of pressure difference across its blade and air tube which floats over the liquid . It reduces the friction and takes care of the buoyancy effects..
Over the past several decades, the need for wireless communication has increased dramatically. Worldwide deployment of fifth-generation (5G) communications, which has many more capabilities than fourth-generation communications, is likely to begin. Faster system capacity, higher data rate, lower latency, higher security, and enhanced quality of service (QoS) compared to the 5G system are some basic concerns that need to be solved beyond 5G. This article outlines the network architecture and future of 6G wireless communication. This article discusses cutting-edge technologies, including artificial intelligence, wireless optical technology, free-space optical networks, block chain, three-dimensional networking, quantum communications, unmanned aerial vehicles, cell-free communications, integrated access-backhaul networks, dynamic network slicing, holographic beam forming, and backscatter. In addition, potential technologies and anticipated applications with 6G communication needs are outlined. We also discuss potential obstacles to success as well as future research possibilities..
In this investigation, the machine repair problem with mixed spares and additional repairmen under no passing constraints have been studied. We assume that there are M operating machines, S cold and Y warm spares machines maintained by R permanent repairmen. In case when all spares are being used, the failure of machines occurs in degraded fashion. In such a situation there is provision of r additional repairmen to speed up the repair. There may be restriction on the departing customers who have to leave the system in the sequential order of the arrival. By using reneging parameters our model becomes closer to the real congestion life situation. The expressions for determining the average number of idle machines, the average number of idle repairmen and waiting time, etc. are established..
The milk of every species of mammal is unique and specifically tailored to the requirements of that animal. For example, cows’ milk is three to four times richer in protein than human milk. It has five to seven times the mineral content. However, it is markedly deficient in essential fatty acids when compared to human mothers' milk. Mothers' milk has six to ten times as much of the essential fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (incidentally, skimmed cow's milk has no linoleic acid). It simply is not designed for humans. Except for domesticated animals to which we feed milk, humans are the only species that drinks the breast milk of another species, and the only species that continues to drink breast milk into adulthood. Today the top producers give ten times more milk. How was this accomplished? Drugs, antibiotics, hormones, forced feeding plans and specialized breeding; that' show..
The role of criminal law is very important and crucial in the society in comparison to any other branch of law because criminal law is more concern in the society. For this purpose, criminal law always should be just, fair and reasonable. It should always make the balance between the social interest and an individual interest. The objective of criminal law to tackle the problem of crime, criminal and criminality, thereby protect the society against criminals, criminality and crimes, which are interrelated to each other. Criminal law has objective to tackle these problems and to protect to the society and solve to these problems, an objective of criminal law to prevention of crimes and provides the rehabilitation and reformation of the accused person this is an emerging trend in criminal Jurisprudence. If we see our criminal justice system in rehabilitation perspective we see it’s provide juvenile homes for juvenile offenders and provision of parole for hard offenders..
Transgender people are people of any age, religion, faith, gender, appearance, personal characteristics, or behaviour that deviate from the norm about how men and women 'should' be. Transgender people have existed in all cultures, races, countries and classes since time immemorial. The word "transgender" appeared in the same language in the mid-1990s from the indigenous community of people with different genders. In today's practice, transgender has become a "common and umbrella term" used to describe a broad spectrum of identities and experiences, including but not limited to heterosexual, male and female heterosexuals. The present paper is an attempt to know the historical account of transgender people. How they are continuously discriminated against and how they behave to protect their rights in different processes. Are there prominent threats to their lives? How powerful has Indian law been in changing the perception of different sections of society? The various rights granted to this community are rarely enforced and the welfare measures remain on paper. Although the Constitution of India makes strong promises prohibiting discrimination of all kinds, there is ambiguity about the concept of gender and the implications that prohibition can have on the rights of third genders. With the Supreme Court taking immediate action on the NALSA decision, significant attention has been drawn to the rights of transgender people, which will be explored in the next paper. Highlighting the historical growth of transgender people and analyzing their position in places around the world, this research paper aims to shed light on the dark world of suffering and discrimination that this community has been subjected to in India..
Digital technology has affected almost every aspect of life today, and teaching-learning is no exception. The digital technologies such as ICT based (e.g., mobile phone, tablet, notebook, computer, laptop, smart TV, etc.), social media (e.g., Facebook, YouTube, Blogs, Twitter, LinkedIn, Telegram, WhatsApp web etc.), and Programmed Learning (online courses, e.g., Swayam, Swayam Prabha, MOOC, etc.) have become increasingly popular in recent years. The effect of Digital technology on teaching and learning is examined in this article, which is based on analysis. The Objective of this Study Is to Understand Impact of Digitization in Education Sector and to highlight how it works. This Is Descriptive Study and this study is based on the analysis of secondary data only. All schools, colleges and universities today are focusing more on digital education. Especially since the time of Covid-19, the demand for this technology-based education has been strong. Online courses now have more demand than the traditional face-to-face courses. The Digital technology has a variety of effects on education which very much helps the students to better understand the process and progress required for their future. The online platform is available 24 × 7, so students can participate at their convenient time, as they are not bound by a specific and strict time schedule. This online education is easily accessible on various devices which are easily known to all the students and they are also eco-friendly. The government is also taking a positive attitude towards technology-based education and taking various initiatives, as a result of which this education is reaching even the remote villages today. Online education is a growing face of India's education system. Since the new Education Policy (NEP) in 2020, many changes have been made in the education system, including online education..
The rapid growth of China substantiated as an instrumental factor in integrating Asian countries with each other and mutually supporting rise of a dynamic Asia. From the last three decades, both Asian economies and China have experienced fully structural transformation. The economic rise of Chinese economy has a discernible effect over the Asia-pacific economies. This paper is an attempt to examine the impact of China rise in Asia-pacific region by analysing it’s trade relations and foreign direct investment. In order to achieve the objective, study used Panel OLS Regression with Random Effect Model on the basis of Hausman Test result. Econometric analysis has been done on the basis of 13 countries of this region and time period from 2006 to 2021 is taking into consideration. The results revealed that trade and outward foreign direct investment of China for Asia-Pacific region is positive and it emerges as an economic driver for growth of the region. Thus, the rise of China would be a great opportunity for Asia –Pacific countries, especially in terms of China's role in its production network, destination for investment, its outward foreign direct investment and more importantly, its huge and growing domestic market..
This Research paper refers to self-perception of Jaya, protagonist of 'That Long Silence' which is a prestigious novel of Shashi Deshpande. She is one of the most eminent novelists of contemporary Indian Literature in English. The present study is an attempt to show how the multi-layered ‘silence’ is used by her protagonist as a strategy to survive, understand and realize her identity and self-esteem, as also to establish and assert her status, role and contribution in the domestic and social domains. Jaya is in search for her ‘self’ in a tradition bound society. This research paper is an honest attempt to show how patriarchal impeded woman’s assertion and tries to oppress her in each and every possible way; and how a woman projects herself as a subject and refuses to live her life in a servile manner. This paper beautifully traces the journey of Jaya, the protagonist from suppression to self- perception..
Recruitment & Selections, is the process by which a company or organization locate & attract individuals to fill job vacancies. It is the activity that links employer and job seekers. In this whole process we finalize the best or relevant creamy candidates as per as the organization requirement, and rejecting the some applicant. Most of the E-sources will be updated to the recants scenario for this process, like-by contractors, pool, website, Trade union etc. The HR Department would set the recruitment or selection norms or policies for the effective compliances or benefits programs from for the welfare of employee with the process head respective functions. So the main purpose of this program to selecting the right candidates for the right job, by this process by will able to grow up in our organization and utilizing resources for achieving organizational goal effectively..
KEGEL exercise is to improve muscle tone by strengthening the pubococcygeus muscles of the pelvic floor. For pregnant women KEGEL is the exercise prescribed by Gynecologist to overcome the physiological stresses by preparing Pelvic Floor muscles for pregnancy and childbirth. Urinary incontinence is common during pregnancy and postpartum. Pelvic floor muscle exercise is suggested to help women to prevent urinary incontinence or regain urinary continence during pregnancy and after delivery. Regular Kegel exercise helps to be fit for antenatal mothers, postnatal mothers and improves your ability to cope with labour. Also, this tightens vagina after delivery. A Pre Experimental research approach was adopted for the study. Pre test and Post test research design was adopted for the study. 60 Antenatal mothers were included in the research study. In pre test it was found that the Antenatal mothers had little bit knowledge about Kegel Exercise to prevent urinary incontinence. After application of VATP there was enhancement in the knowledge by questionnaire method So, it was concluded that VATP ensured the enhancement in the knowledge of Antenatal mothers..
A novel coronavirus associated with human-to-human transmission and severe human infection has been reported from Wuhan in China and spread worldwide. Our objectives were to characterize the genetic relationships of COVID-19-Wuhan-Hu-1 and some other coronaviruses. Viral diseases are widely spread infections caused by viruses, a type of microorganism. Viruses can cause a wide range of diseases and come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The most common type of viral illness is the common cold, which is caused by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. Bats have long been known to be natural reservoirs for a wide range of viruses. Bat coronaviruses have received special attention as one of the new coronaviruses that have produced unexpected human illness outbreaks around the world. COVID-19-Wuhan-Hu-1 was suggested to have originated from bats. Here we are going to find the phylogenetic relationship of COVID-19-Wuhan-Hu-1 with Pipistrellus Bat Coronavirus-HKU5, Human Coronavirus-NL63, Porcine Coronavirus-HKU15, Avian Infectious Bronchitisvirus-I, Beluga Whale Coronavirus-SW1, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Evolutionary relationships are frequently described by phylogenetic trees, which are the most useful for genetic studies. We used a percent identity metric-based method for comparing trees, which extracts distinct alternative evolutionary relationships. Understanding the phylogenetic relationship of COVID-19-Wuhan-Hu-1 with other viruses is helpful for the prediction and prevention of another pandemic emergence in the future..
69% of India's population is still settled in villages. Therefore, rural development is an important issue because unless the villages are not capable, the country will not be strong. Therefore, it is necessary that we pay attention to its problems and their solutions. Etah district is also facing these problems due to which its full development is not being done. However, Aryavart Bank is being played an important role for this. Therefore, in this paper, we will overview the efforts made by Aryavart Bank Etah to overcome the main problems (agriculture, unemployment and illiteracy) of rural areas. And know how successful Aryavart Bank has been in this. Key Words: Rural Development, Aryavart Bank, Agriculture..
Time management is very important for a student and it is useful to maintain it. Due to other activities and work, divide yourself according to time. So time management is essential for all of us. Time management will keep students' work easily allocated to a specific time management period. Student time management can also affect a student's stress level. Time management is becoming more of your life and you to enjoy your good career as a student. Time management is essential for a student to shine.
Information technology and its tools are very popular in any organization.Information technology plays a vital role in decision making process. Information technology is very important for smooth functioning of supply chain process and for achieving organizational competitiveness, improving higher service level, lowering inventory costs of supply chain and decreasing electronic risks (e-risks).Information technologies (IT) is important component to Company business operations and success of business. Companies depend on Information Technology for fast communications, data processing and market intelligence. IT is a useful fororganization and integration within the supply chain. Information Technology will reducethe operational expenses of supply chain management. The organizations are moving towards IT Tools such as Electronic Data Exchange (EDI), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Bar Code, Electronic Commerce, Decision Support system, Enterprises Resource Planning (ERP) package, etc.This paper focuses on effect of Information technology and tools in improving supply chain management efficiency..
Food adulteration is a global concern and developing countries are at higher risk associated with it due to lack of monitoring and policies. However, this is one of the most common phenomena that has been overlooked in many countries. Unfortunately, in contrast to common belief, spices adulterants can pose serious health hazards leading to fatal diseases. This paper presents a detailed review of common spices adulterants as well as different methods to detect the adulterants both qualitatively and quantitatively. This study is organized to be an 'adulterant based' study instead of 'techniques based' one, where qualitative detection for most of the common adulterants are enlisted and quantitative detection methods are limited to few major adulterants of spices. Apart from regular techniques, recent development in these detection techniques have also been reported. Nowadays spices is being adulterated in more sophisticated ways that demands for cutting edge research for the detection of the adulterants. This review intends to contribute towards the common knowledge base regarding possible spices adulterants and their detection techniques..
In the present study, Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) was prepared by microwave assisted sol-gel synthetic method and effect of heat treatment on microcrystalline properties was studied. Synthesized material was sintered at three different temperature; 400, 500 and 600 °C. To investigate microstructural properties, samples were introduced to X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) UV-Visible spectroscopy. XRD pattern depicts semicrystalline behaviour of unannealed TiO2 which was converted into perfect crystalline nature at higher thermal treatment. Exhaustive growth of tetragonal anatase phase of TiO2 was observed. However, the TiO2 annealed at 600 °C traces of rutile phase was also observed which reflects phase transformation at higher annealing temperature. The absorption spectra shows that all the samples are UV active as they absorb UV radiation strongly. FE-SEM images shows clusters of spherical particles in the range of 20-30 nm...
The lineal range of water-to-cement (w/c) ratios to be used for general construction works is 0.38 to 0.55, considering ‘mild’ to ‘extreme’ environments as per IS:456 specifications. Irregardless using such w/c ranges, certain factors such as poor quality materials, improper aggregate gradation, inadequate compaction and curing periods, poor workmanship and quality control practices, etc., can yield poor quality concretes or concretes that are permeable. In addition, specific applications involve concrete to be used for underwater construction, lean construction and others. Although conventional or lower w/c ratios are used in underwater construction, the placed concrete under water may have very high w/c as against the originally designed concrete. In the current study, efforts are taken to study the behavior of high w/c concrete containing limestone powder. While provisions are available to use limestone powder as a partial replacement material for cement as per ASTM, the same is experimented at dosages of 10%, 20% and 40% by mass of cement. The objective of the study is to investigate the ability of limestone powder to serve as a pore filling material for concretes having high w/c ratio. Eight tests were conducted and attempts were taken to inter relate pore properties of these concretes to their corrosion mitigating ability in microcell and macro-cell corrosion tests using cylinder and prism specimens, respectively. While limestone powder addition was observed to be beneficial at 10% and 20% dosage levels, their addition beyond 20% provided poorer properties in most tests..
Phyto-fabrication of metal nanoparticles is grounded on the use of synergistic redox potential of plant secondary metabolites altering metal valance states. The resulting nano state occupies incredible changed optical properties with improved activities. During plant-mediated fabrication, medicinally important bioactive secondary metabolite also form capping on freshly generated metal nanoparticles and becomes a source for additional enhancement of bio-efficacy. The capping effect of therapeutically significant secondary metabolites of the plants on the freshly produced metal nanoparticles is one of the governing factors of green nanotechnological enhancement in pharmacological activities. So far, any proof based on analytical evidences of capping effect has not been reported. The present short communication warrants confirmatory HPTLC fingerprinting evidence of capping effect of extracted saponin from the seed of the plant Madhuca longifolia on the freshly phytofabricated mono (Au, Ag) and bimetallic (Au-Ag) nanoparticles..
In today's world, main issues on every girl's mind is about her security and safety. A few years back, women had to face the social system (social media) to protest and warn about sexual harassment. The worst fact in today's world is the increase in cruelty against women. A UN Women-supported study in Delhi found that 95% of women and girls feel unsafe in public. According to various studies, one-third of women and all girls have experienced physical or sexual violence in their lives. As technology has advanced, many systems have evolved to assist women in at-risk situations. If the women find themselves in a dangerous situation, they should set up an automatic detection system that will send them an alert, including the location of the police station, to ensure their safety. This paper proposes a smart security device to help women to be safe during times of utmost danger. This can be done by sensing various factors such as abnormal sounds, body reaction like trembling, GPS and GSM modules which can be sensed using sensor and to provide the alert message. In this paper, we surveyed the existing mechanism for detecting locations, for sending communications and collecting physical parameters of the human body using sensors..
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of the green building drivers on innovative construction, which is basically called "green construction." Green construction is now an emerging concept in the field of building construction and development. Research Methodology: The study was empirical in nature, and analysis took place in the study. The structured questionnaire had been formulated and filled out by the 167 employees working on the construction process, and their responses had been evaluated with the help of statistical tools like IBM SPSS Statistics 20. The researcher used the correlation analysis to test the validity of the drivers of the green building. Findings: The green building drivers are very important factors for innovative construction in the new era. The findings suggest that we have to shift our focus towards maintaining the balance between green building drivers to achieve the goal of green construction. Implications: The study verifies the validity of the constructs of the Green Building Drivers, which explain that the practise of green construction can improve innovative techniques of construction..
Chaetotaxy is the arrangement of macrochaetae (bristles ) on the body surface of insects. It is very important for determining homology in morphological traits, as well as providing information about the phylogeny between taxa. In case of Noctuide Lepidopteran Spodoptera mauritia thoracic body segments of last instar observe two ventral setae, two sub ventral setae, four dorsal setae, two subdorsal and two lateral setae while six microscopic setae. There are three punctures towards dorsal surface ( XDa, XDb and XDc)..
Agriculture has been practiced for more than 20,000 years. The Neolithic period, when agriculture first appeared, also saw the beginning of civilization. India is an agrarian nation, so the majority of its agriculture is reliant on rains, soil, moisture, and environmental difficulties. Our farmers switched to the most cutting-edge agricultural technologies available today. The phrase "smart agriculture" refers to a broad category of agricultural and food production methods supported by big data, advanced analytics, and the Internet of Things. IoT mainly refers to the addition of analytics, automation, and sensor technology to contemporary agricultural processes. It is now necessary for Indian farmers to implement smart agricultural systems in order to increase crop productivity. The farmer can monitor agricultural fields' productivity by compiling data from sensors, actuators, and contemporary electronic devices. With the aid of sensors connected to the processing module Arduino-UNO, smart agriculture can forecast weather data by turning on the pump motor and recognizing the dampness of the soil in terms of moisture levels. With the use of networking technologies, the smart farm system may be operated from any location. When Smart Agriculture and Artificial Intelligence are combined, cutting-edge technologies for data compilation and resource optimization may result. The pest and insect controls that guard against crop damage and also optimise resource utilization can be groundbreaking..
Digitization, the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and the rise of social media platforms are changing English Creative Writing and the English language itself. Any prospective writer may now become an author by sharing his or her written works on different social media sites. As a result, the definition of what constitutes Creative Writing has been rewritten. A novel or a classic was traditionally defined or interpreted in a specific way. T.S. Eliot and J.M. Coetze, for example, have written about and investigated what makes a work a classic. If we look closely at what constitutes a classic, we can see that it is a combination of talent and the emotions it generates in the reader, which finally leads to its fame. The latter, though, is a question of personal preference. Each person who reads a book has a unique relationship with it and perceives it in a unique way. In one sense, the "invisible forces" of the market end up determining what work will be elevated to the high regions of being dubbed a "classic." However, one thing is obvious from the many books on classics that we read: it clearly has an aspect of being "eternal" or "permanent." Something that endures the test of time and that people return to read, examine, and discover new meanings in. In the context of this, does the definition of classic change as the medium evolves into a digital environment, with the arrival of e-books, digital publishing, and even publishing on social media platforms? Will the "classic" definition or understanding of the term "classic" survive the test of time? Or does the medium detract from the message?.
Studies on the algal diversity of river Yamuna at Agra revealed the presence of 15 algal Genera and 20 species of chlorophyceae has been identified from selected sites by their appearances such as shape and colour of the thallus. The phenology of freshwater algae mostly belonging to chlorophycean members is totally dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the water bodies. Maximum algal population was noticed in early summer, followed by winter, while the lowest in august. The amount of water discharge velocity and transparency influence the occurrence and abundance of algal diversity. During summer and winter time, certain species of chlorophyceae group were recorded as dominant species e.g. Chlorella vulgaris, Pediastrum sp., Spirogyra sp., Scendesmus sp., Chara sp., Volvox sp., Cladophora sp., Closterium cynthia, Zygnema sp., Pendorina sp.and Chlamydomonas sp. etc..